Reading in the content area


-how people use prior knowledge to organize and store knowledge in their heads
(schema activation)- mechanism by which people access what they know and match it to information in the text

Critical Thinking

-the objective analysis and evaluation of an issue in order to form a judgment


variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence


demonstrating to students how you would use different literary strategies

Expository TExt

Informational text

Narrative TExt

the telling of a story, to gain readers intrest

Trade Book

Book that may be a narrative but is informational to read

Elements of story (Narrative) structure

setting, plot, and theme. The parts of narrative plot include exposition (the beginning), rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution

Expository Text structures

sequence, description, compare-contrast, cause-effect, and problem-solution. ...

Model text

If you expect students to write
in a particular genre, style, or discipline,
then it is helpful to use trade books as models
Read like writers
Notice the structure and organization of the text
Chronological, question/answer, cause/effect, narrative, etc.

Academic Vocabulary

words that are typically only used in a content area, words used across all academic fields
General academic words:
High frequency across the curriculum in school; lower frequency outside of school
ex: associate, compare, arrange
Academic content words:

Receptive Vocabulary

Words we understand when we listen or read

Expressive Vocabulary

Words used to speak or write


knowing when what you are reading makes sense and when it does not. It is when you are mentally interacting with what you are reading.


monitoring correctness and being able to find when something is wrong and knowing strategies to correct it.

Background Knowledge

the knowledge students have, learned both formally in the classroom as well as informally through life experiences.

Writing to learn

-short, informal writing tasks, used to help students explore ideas and clarify what they are thinking about, tap into prior knowledge and relate it to new

Elements of effective adolescent literacy programs/elements of effective literacy instruction

- direct explicit comprehension instructions
- motivation and self-directed learning
-text-based collaborative learning
-diverse texts
-intensive writing

Scaffolding students reading and writing

When teaching new procedures to students, give extensive modeling and do the strategy with students the first time. Overtime use less time to to explain to students what to do as they become more independent with the strategy and know what they are doing

Differentiating instruction

using different strategies while teaching to reach every kind of learner and make teaching the most accesible

Teacher Modeling

demonstrating how you want students to apply reading and writing strategies

Teaching with Trade books

using trade book sot help students be more interested in the text and take ownership of the content. Deepens knowledge and helps students relate to more experiences and persepctives.

Before, during and After reading strategies

B: -motivates readers, building/activating prior knowledge, introducing key vocab and concepts, develop awareness of the task
D:- what students should be doing while reading to ensure comprehension
A:-Clarification, elaboration, writing, follow up discuss

Explicit Instruction

establishing and maintaining clear learning goals in a clear relationship to the content

Fix-up strategies

being aware of when comprehension breaks down:
Use picture and/or context clues
Ask questions
Go back & reread
Summarize & Retell
Make predictions
Graphic Organizers


1-a neurological learning disability
2-Phonological awareness
Accurate and/or fluent word recognition
Verbal expression
Listening comprehension
3-causes unclear, not related to intelligence
4-A child with a learning disability was define


1- Ability to decode and/or recognize words correctly
2-Words Correct Per Minute (wcpm
3-Appropriate phrasing and expression
4-Quick and effortless identification of words
Frees up cognitive resources needed for comprehension

-tier 1, tier 2 and tier 3 words
-levels of word knowledge
-using context clues

-1: common words, everyday 2:general academic (most important) 3: academic content words
- recognition, understanding, understand in context but no definition, know meaning of most common usage, use word in spoken language and writing, extensive knowledge

-Using mentor texts
-writing to learn
-using model texts

-Mentor texts: Model quality writing with stories, nonfiction books, and poems (Dorfman & Cappelli), Students imitate the feature in their own writing
-Short and informal writing tasks.
-model texts of students that are their age and showing writing at a

-reader factors
-text factors

1) Motivation
Knowledge and experience
Purpose for reading
Complexity of task assigned regarding text
Complexity of questions asked regarding text
2) qualitative and quantitative readibility

Text Complexity
1-three part model
2-quantitative readibility formulas
3-Qualitative readability analysis
-know how to use qualitative text complexity gradient rubric

1) Qualitative, Quantitative, reader and task
2) Word length
Word frequency
Word difficulty
Sentence length
Text length
Text cohesion
3) Levels of meaning
Levels of purpose
Language conventionality
Language clarity
Prior knowledge d

Think aloud:

-Primary features: teacher makes thinking explicit by verbalizing thoughts while reading orally
-Purpose: helps readers clarify their understanding of reading and of how to use strategies
-When: During/ Before students read
-looks like/steps:
1) select pa

Teacher read- aloud

- primary features: students listen to teacher read aloud, also students interact with text by being actively engaged in thinking, questioning, clarifying, summarizing texts
--Purpose:provides literary experience in a supportive context and exposure to ne

Paired Reading

- primary features: students read aloud to eachother
--Purpose: fluency
-When: during reading
-looks like/steps:
1) pair students of different reading levels with eachother
2) students independently read first then
2) have students alternate reading by se

Choral Reading

- primary features: reading aloud in unison with teacher as the lead reader
--Purpose: fluency
-When: during reading
-looks like/steps:
1) Read the passage or story aloud and model fluent reading for the students.
2) Ask the students to use a marker or fi

Repeated reading

- primary features: repeated readings of the same material
--Purpose: comprehension, fluency
-When: During reading
-looks like/steps:
1) focus on breaking down linguistic barriers
have students skim and mark any part not understood
(talk denoation and con


- primary features: asking questions during reading to monitor self understanding
-When: during reading
-looks like/steps:
1) define literal, inferntial and evaluative questions
the three kinds of questions students can ask themsel

(QAR) Question-answer relationsips

- primary features: four basic QAR: 1) in the text: right there 2) in the text, think and search 3) in your head, author and you 4) in your head, on your own
--Purpose: Help students become aware of and skilled in using learning strategies to find the inf


Role of the Writer - The perspective of the writer, or who the student is writing as.
Audience - Who is going to be reading the material? Who is it intended for?
Format - What is the writing going to look like? What form will it take?
Topic - Why the piec

pg 225

- primary features:Directed REading-thinking activity
fosters awareness and thinking: engages learners in a process of predication, verification, interpretation, and judgement
-When: During reading
-looks like/steps:
1) teacher gui

Guided reading procedure
pg 218

- primary features: close reading, students gather information and organize it around important ideas, accuracy is important.
--Purpose: comprehension
-When: after reading
-looks like/steps:
1) Prepare students for reading
2) assign a reading selection

Double entry journal
pg 296

- primary features: record dual entries in a response journal, entries are coneptually related,
--Purpose:comprehension, writing, recording response to text
-When:During and after reading
-looks like/steps:
1) divide paper in half lengthwise
2) on right s

Jigsaw group method
pg 156

- primary features: Interdependent team learning with texts
-When:B, D, A
-looks like/steps:
1) divide students into home groups, these groups all read different texts.
2) have studnets move into expert groups where they all read t

Graphic organizers
pg 318

- primary features: visual displays the help learners retain textually important information
--Purpose:comprehension, retention
-When: during/after
-looks like/steps:1) present an example of the kind of graphic organizer that corresponds to the kind of ou

compare and contrast the characteristics of successful and unsuccessful readers. Discuss the teachers responsibilty in the development of content area reading when working with each type of reader.

Successful readers: Have clear goals, are strategic in those goals. Ask questions, read different kinds of texts differently.
Unsuccessful readers need more scaffolding with reading strategies than readers who are already successful. Teachers should provi

A colleague who has used only traditional printed material in her classroom is interested in incorporating new literacies into a unit of study. How could you explain the differences between trad. and new literacies?

new literacies are best described as texts with multimodal elements like print, graphic design, audio, video, gesture and nonstop interaction.
These texts are much more interactive than traditional literacies and are often driven by technology.
New litera

In what ways can content area teachers use texts effectively by using instructional strategies that move beyond assigning and telling?

Differentiating instruction for many different students, modeling strategies for students, asking guiding questions, guiding students to different more effective strategies or guiding them through questioning the anser they are looking for instead of just

What are some advantages to using expository and narrative trade books in content instruction?

Rich in content
Relate experiences and perspectives not included in textbooks
Provide exposure to different genres and forms
Challenge student thinking
Make information more interesting and accessible
Informal and engaging writing styles
Ensure accuracy

How can content area teachers assist students in knowing how to think with text in order to respond to, discover, organize, retreive, and elaborate on information and ideas they encounter in content learning situations.

modeling for students how they read and think through text, scaffolding guided reading stratigies: Beginning with very specific instructions on what to look for and what questions to answer while reading a text, and slowly moving away from this highly stu

Explain why reading and writing need to be connected in instructional contexts. give specific examples if how this can occur in the content area that you plan to teach.

Ensure that students read a variety of materials written for a variety of purposes and audiences
Encourage written response to literature and informational texts.
Give reading a prominent role in the writing classroom
Use reading materials to model writin

Schema activation is the mechanism by which people access what they know and match it to information in the text. How does schema activation help students comprehend texts and new concepts?

Schema activation helps involve students prior knowledge and experiences with their interaction with the text. This helps them draw conclusions and ask questions based on what they already know, which in turn helps them to comprehend what they are reading

Explain why memorizing definitions of words is not enough to develop a conceptual understanding of these terms. Explain why the straegies described in chapter 7 can be more effective instructional tools when teaching content area vocabulary.


Explain how knowledge of expository text structure can affect a students
a) comprehension of a particular text
b) writing in a particular format


What criteria should educators consider when selecting texts for their students?

Authority of the author
Accuracy of the text content
Appropriateness of the book for its audience
Literacy artistry
Appearance of the book

What are the primary purposes for
1) before reading activities
2) during reading
3) after reading

Before Reading
Motivate readers.
Activate prior knowledge.
Introduce key vocabulary and concepts.
Develop metacognitive awareness of task.
During Reading
Distinguish important ideas from less important ideas.
After Reading
Extend and elaborate ideas from