FON241 Midterm (Lessons 1 - 7)

When people eat foods of their family's location, their eating pattern are being influenced by?

ethnic heritage or tradition

People who eat foods to relieve boredom or calm anxiety are eating for reasons of?

emotional comfort

The National health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2001-2002 describes several additional reason that may affect our food choices. Which reason(s) would you expect to be covered?

Pregnancy status, Gender, Marital Status, Poverty Income Ratio

Rhonda's desire for apple pie and ice cream reflects what reason for eating?

Emotional Comfort

Immediate changes one should make in one's life to combat a sedentary lifestyle and obesity include...

Getting more exercise and reducing fat and sugar in one's diet

What is not classified as a macronutrient?

Calcium

By chemical analysis, which nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?

Water

What is an organic nutrient?

Fat

Gram for gram, which substance provides the most energy to do work in our bodies?

Fat

What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?

755

How many kcals are there in one gram of carbohydrate?

4 kcals

How many kcals are there in one gram of protein?

4 kcals

How many kcals are there in one gram of fat?

9 kcals

The muscular contractions that propel food through the digestive tract are called?

Peristalsis

What sphincter muscle is situated between the stomach and that small intestine?

Pyloric sphincter

What is the partially digested food that enters the small intestine from the stomach is called?

Chime

A periodic squeezing of the intestines is...

segmentation

Which of the following is the correct sequence of organs in the digestive system?

Mouth, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus

The main function of bile is to?

Emulsify Fats

Which of the organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?

Liver

What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?

Mucus

Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?

Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment

The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to?

Raise the pH of chime

Absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells occurs by all of the following mechanisms except...

Transmigration

To assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is usually best to...

Combine different food types to enhance the absorption process

Chronic diarrhea may result in what?

Dehydration

A person viewing an exciting sports match of their favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying what food choice behavior?

Emotional comfort

What is an example of a micronutrient?

Vitamin C

In the body, chemical energy in food can't be converted to what type of energy?

Light energy

What most accurately describes the composition of most foods?

They contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two my predominate

What does the term organic describe?

Products grown without use of pesticides

What nutrients do not yield energy during metabolism?

Vitamins

How many kcals are there in a gram of alcohol?

7 kcals

In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as?

Epidemiological studies

What is the benefit of using controls in an experiment?

The subjects are similar in all respects except for the treatment being tested

What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment?

Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group

Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a?

Positive correlation

What is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?

Chance variation is ruled out

What are two major nutrients supplied by the fruit and vegetable group?

Vitamins A and C

What is a major criticism of the use of the MyPlate educational tool?

It treats all foods within a single group the same

What information is not needed to be lawfully provided on food labels?

The amount recommended for ingestion each day

According to the principles of the USDA Food Patterns, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of?

Nutrient-dense foods

On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories?

2000

What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?

It prevents the contents of the intestines from backing up into the stomach

What is a feature of peristalsis?

Wavelike muscular contractions result from alternate tightening and relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles

What is not an important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption?

It activates pancreatic lipase

What best describes the normal pH of the stomach?

Very Acidic

After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the intestine, which of the following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?

Approximately neutral

What is one function of the gallbladder?

Produces bile

What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?

Helps prevent infectious bacteria from attacking the system

What is a function of the intestinal microvilli?

Transport of nutrient molecules

What is NOT a way nutrients are absorbed by intestine cells?

Transmigration

Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats?

Lymphatic

In which of the following would you almost always find sufficient amounts of carbohydrates?

Plant foods

What is not a simple carbohydrate?

Starches

What is not a true characteristic of glucose?

Glucose is sweeter tasting than sucrose

What is a part of maltose, sucrose and lactose?

Glucose

What is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?

Condensation

What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose subunits?

Glycogen

What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose and lignin?

Fibers

What plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of dietary fiber in the large intestines?

Bacteria

Glycogen is stored mainly in which of the following tissues?

Muscle and liver

What is a characteristic of dietary fiber?

Classified according to solubility in water

What enzyme does NOT act on simple sugars?

Amylase

The role of the liver in monosaccharide absorption is to convert?

Fructose to glucose

What is not a symptoms of lactose intolerance?

Constipation

What ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?

Dextrins

What is a characteristic of yogurt?

Bacteria in the product produce lactase

What is the primary function of insulin?

Lowers blood glucose levels

What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?

Pancreas

When you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration?

Epinephrine

Type 2 diabetes is also known as?

adult-onset diabetes

What is best known to result from (not caused by) the regular ingestion of sugar?

Dental caries

What is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages?

High-fructose corn syrup

What is the food intake recommendations for reducing the incidence of dental caries when the diet contains sugary foods?

Eat a sugary snack all at one time rather than in parts throughout the day

What is the name of the sweetener consisting of a mixture of glucose and fructose formed by chemical hydrolysis of sucrose?

Inverted sugar

What is stevia?

An herb-derived sweetener

What is the chemical composition of fats?

Fatty acids and glycero

Canola Oil and Cottonseed Oil share what property?

They both have low saturated fat

What oil has the most healthful polyunsaturated omega-3 fats?

Canola oil

Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of?

Double bounds

Coconut has the highest percentage form of what?

Saturated fats

Which part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?

Small Intestine

What is the storage site of bile?

Gallbladder

In the digestion of fats, emulsifiers function as?

Detergents

What is a characteristic of the lipase enzyme?

Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays a significant role in fat digestion in infants.

In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, a high-density lipoprotein contains?

less lipid

What lipid is an essential nutrient?

Linoleic acid

A deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids may be associated with?

Depression

What parts of the body will be the first to show the negative effects of fasting?

Brain and red blood cells

Approximately what percentage of the body's energy needs at rest is supplied by fat?

60

What presents the greatest danger to rising blood cholesterol?

The amount of saturated fat in food

The results of blood tests that reveal a person's total cholesterol and triglycerides are called a?

Lipid profile

Approximately how many kcalories are contained in a pound of body fat?

3500

As a percentage of daily energy intake, what is the recommended range for the essential fatty acids?

5.6 - 11.2

A major feature of the Mediterranean diet is liberal amounts of?

Olive oil

For most adults, what is the recommended minimum amount of fat that should be consumed, as a percentage of total energy intake?

20

What is a feature of fat in the diet of athletes?

Greater endurance is found on a 50% fat diet than on a 10% fat diet

A food that represents a visible fat would be?

Butter

What is the reaction that breaks two molecules apart?

Hydrolysis

What is a characteristic of glucose?

It is a monosaccharide

What is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?

Glycogen

What is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds of starch and those in cellulose?

Cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes

A "functional fiber" is one that?

Is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect

What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?

Small intestines

What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?

Liver

What would be least likely to be connected with the development of lactose intolerance?

Milk allergy

What is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms?

A change occurs in the GI bacteria

What is the primary function of insulin?

Lowers blood glucose levels

What is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose?

Blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of insulin.

When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?

Glucagon

What is a feature of diabetes?

Dietary management should focus on total carbohydrate intake rather than the type of carbohydrate consumed

What describes the glycemic effects of foods?

A measure of how fast and high the food causes the blood glucose to rise

What is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risk of deaths from heart disease?

High fiber intake

According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intake should be furnished by carbohydrates?

45-65

What is the RDA for carbohydrates?

130 g

A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a?

Triglyceride

What characteristic is shared by olive oil and canola oil?

Both contain high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids

A major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to?

Heat and oxygen

What is a feature of phospholipids?

Soluble in both water and fat

What type of compound is lecithin?

Phospholipid

What is a feature of cholesterol?

Synthesized by the body

All of the following compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol except?

Glucose

What would be the least effective method to control blood cholesterol levels?

Eat more insoluble fiber

What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?

Small intestine

A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of

High-density lipoproteins

What vegetable oil is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids?

Canola

What is not linked to excessive intake of fats?

Lactose intolerance

What element is found in proteins but NOT in carbohydrates and fats?

Nitrogen

What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?

Order of amino acids in the peptide chain

What is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain?

Denaturation

Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?

20

What is the process that results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat?

Denaturation

Upon eating a hamburger, in what organ is the hydrolysis of protein begun?

Stomach

What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?

Pepsin

In which organ is pepsin active?

Stomach

What is the chief function of pepsin?

Cleaves proteins into smaller polypeptides

Which of the following describes the structure of pepsin?

Protein

In relation to protein synthesis, the role of DNA in the nucleus is to?

Make messenger RNA as a translation of the DNA code

The physical site where amino acids are sequenced in the cell is?

Ribosome in the cytoplasm

What is a condition resulting from an incorrect amino acid sequence in hemoglobin?

Sickle-cell anemia

What best describes the structure of messenger RNA?

It is a nucleic acid copy of nuclear DNA

The carrier molecules of amino acids found in the cytoplasm are?

tRNA molecules

What is a characteristic of hormones?

Act as messenger molecules

What help does a buffer perform?

Helps maintain a constant pH

What proteins inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses?

Antibodies

What is involved in the clotting of blood?

Fibrin

What describes the structure of an antibody?

Large protein molecule

What is the fate of excess dietary protein?

After absorption, the extra amino acids will be rapidly degraded.

If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?

Protein synthesis will be limited

What is complementary protein nutrition?

A strategy of combining plant proteins in the same meal to improve the balance of essential amino acids

What food proteins has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?

Egg

What is the most likely explanation for the fatty liver that develops from protein deficiency?

Inability of the liver to synthesize lipoproteins for fat export

What is not an advantage of a vegetarian diet?

vitamin B12 intake is lower

What is allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?

Milk products and plant foods only

Which of the following ingredients found on a food label is a protein?

Tofu

Textured vegetable protein is usually made of...

Soy protein

In general, a newborn infant is able to thrive during the early months by ingesting only breast milk and a source of....

vitamin D

What is a feature of catabolic reactions?

Involve the release of energy

What is the major energy carrier molecule in most cells?

ATP

What metabolic reaction occurs when a cell uses energy?

ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP

In the adult body, food energy not stored as fat or glycogen is lost as

Heat

What is the approximate percent efficiency of conversion of food energy to ATP energy in the body?

40

Glycolysis is the conversion of

Glucose to pyruvate

What is NOT an aspect of glycolysis?

It is irreversible

When a person is performing intense physical exercise and begins to feel fatigue and a burning pain in the muscles, it is most likely due to the muscles accumulation of

Lactic acid

What outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose?

Glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain

What product is NOT generated via TCA cycle or electron transport chain?

Ammonia

What cannot be used to make body proteins?

Fatty acids

If the carbohydrate content of the diet is insufficient to meet the body's needs for glucose, which of the following can be converted to glucose?

Amino acids

In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?

Excreted as urea

The body's need for water increases on a diet high in...

Portein

What is not a possible fate of metabolized glucose?

Urea

What is a feature of the metabolism of surplus dietary fat?

Excess fat is almost all stored

After the first day or so of fasting, which of the following is most depleted in the body?

Glycogen

During the first few days of a fast, what energy source provides about 90% of the glucose needed to fuel the body?

Protein

What is a feature of ketosis?

Occurs from lack of protein in the diet

A person with fruity odor on the breath demonstrates evidence of metabolic

Ketosis

Which organ is first to absorb alcohol after taking a drink?

Stomach

What is the primary organ that oxidizes alcohol for fuel?

Liver

What is characteristic of alcohol absorption?

It is increased about 20% on an empty stomach

What is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver disease caused by chronic alcohol toxicity?

Fat accumulation, fibrosis, cirrhosis

What is/are best suited for slowing alcohol absorption?

Carbohydrate snacks

What atom is always found in a molecule of glucose?

Carbon

What is a feature of an essential amino acid?

It must be supplied by the diet

What describes a process in protein synthesis?

The code to make a protein is carried by a strand of messenger RNA

In comparison to the well-defined structure of starch, which of the following is the most important factor that allows for the synthesis of thousands of different proteins?

Number of different amino acids

The application of heat or acid to a protein that causes its shape to change is known as

Denaturation

What is the structure of an enzyme?

Protein

What is a feature of whey protein?

It is a waste product of cheese production

What process is regulated primarily by the buffering action of proteins?

pH balance

What are proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses?

Antibodies

The body's amino acid pool consists of...

both essential and nonessential amino acids

What is the chief factor that governs the quality of a food protein?

Essential amino acid content

What is not considered to be a source of high-quality protein in human nutrition?

Corn

What describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells?

Metabolism

What metabolic reactions occurs when a cell uses energy?

ATP releases a phosphate group and becomes ADP

What defines a coenzyme?

A small organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme

The series of reactions involving the conversion of glucose to pyruvate is known as...

Glycolysis

What coincides with - but does not seem to be the cause of- the muscle fatigue and burning pain in the muscles that accompanies intense physical exercise?

A build-up of lactate

Jake is getting ready for spring training and is sitting down to a dinner of half a chicken, a rib-eye steak, black beans, and 5 slices of bacon. He has been eating typical dinners like this for about a month and has since gained 7 pounds, while exercisin

Dietary protein alone does not contribute to muscle accretion

When energy-yielding nutrients are consumed in excess, which one(s) can lead to storage of fat?

Fat, carbohydrate, and protein

In addition to energy, what are the principal end products of cellular oxidation of carbohydrates?

Water and carbon dioxide

Which of the following is a characteristic of ketosis?

It may lead to a lowering of blood pH

The metabolism of alcohol begins in the...

Stomach

What plays a major role in regulating the elimination of alcohol from the body?

Liver alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes

An aerobic reaction is one that requires...

Oxygen

When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a...

Dipeptide

What instrument is used to measure the energy content of foods?

Bomb calorimeter

External cues that may cause an obese person to respond helplessly to food typically will not include...

Outdoor exercises

What has the greatest power to suppress hunger?

Apples

What may be used to calculate the amount of energy expended by the body?

Oxygen consumed

If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has...

More muscle mass

If a normal 60 kg person has a resting energy expenditure of 1300 kcal/day, about how many total kilocalories are needed to sustain four hours of studying?

350

An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called...

Body Mass Index

What is the weight classification assigned both to young women with 30% body fat and young men with 20% body fat?

Normal

What defines central obesity?

Storage of excess fat around the central part of the body

Research in obese people seems to show that there is no increase in the risks for strokes and hypertension provided that the excess body fat is distributed around the...

Hips and thighs

Current dietary trends in fat and/or energy intake for adult Americans does not include...

Our higher prevalence of obesity is due primarily to excess carbohydrate intake

What is not a feature of high-protein diets?

They provide for long-term weight maintenance

What is the primary reason for the weight loss seen on common high-protein diets?

Low energy intake

What is a characteristic of dieting and ketosis?

Body fat losses on a ketogenic diet are not higher than on other diets of equivalent kcalories

What is NOT a side effect of typical low-carbohydrate diets?

High blood pressure

Adverse effects on organs such as the liver from the presence of excess body fat is known as?

Lipotoxicity

What is a feature of leptin?

It acts primarily on the brain

3.In comparison with non-obese people, obese people have a lower...

Physical activity level

What is the most important single contributor to the obesity problem in the United States?

Physical inactivity

What is the primary action of Orlistat, a weight loss drug?

It inhibits pancreatic lipase

What is not a sensible guideline for a diet plan?

Eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food

What is the best approach to weight loss?

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

In a weight reduction regimen, the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is...

6 months

The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best promoted by diets rich in..

Complex carbohydrates

What is NOT an adaptive response to regular physical exercise?

It stimulates digestive function in the postexercise period

An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to...

Increase physical activity

Anorexia nervosa is most common in?

Female adolescents

What term is given to a female athlete who has an eating disorder and develops amenorrhea and osteoporosis?

Female athlete triad

What is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?

In those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns

Typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge would not include...

Vegetables

What would NOT be a diet recommendation for a person with bulimia nervosa?

Eat cold foods to stimulate satiety