Ch.22 Practice Test

Peristalsis

Wavelike smooth muscle contractions that move foodstuffs through the alimentary tube.

Digestion

Chemical or mechanical process of breaking down foodstuffs to substances that can be absorbed.

Hydrolysis

Enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule.

Absorption

Process by which the products of digestion pass through the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph.

A)Liver

Receives blood via the hepatic portal system.

B) Small Instestines

Increases surface area for absorption via villi and microvilli.

C) Stomach

Only digestive structure with three muscle layers.

D)Pancreas

Produces enzymes that break down all categories of foodstuffs

E) Large instestines

Bacteria process undigested chyme from the small intestine.

B) Small instestines

Contains the brush border enzymes that complete digestion of carbohydrates and proteins.

A) Liver

Main function is to filter and process the nutrient-rich blood delivered to it.

C) Stomach

Produces intrinsic factor.

C) Stomach

Produces a mucoid barrier.

B) in the walls of the tract organs

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
A) in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
B) in the walls of the tract organs
C) in the pons and medulla
D) only in the esophagus because this is the o

B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage

The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
A) carry toxins to the venous system for disposal through the urinary tract
B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage
C) distribute hormones
D) return glucose to the ge

C) chemical digestion

When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
A) absorption
B) secretion
C) chemical digestion
D) mecha

A) mesenteries

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
A) mesenteries
B) lamina propria
C) serosal lining
D) mucosal lining

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
A) muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa
B) serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and

D) rennin

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
A) thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
B) tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells
C) replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells
D) rennin

D) lamina propria

The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
A) muscularis mucosae
B) serosa
C) adventitia
D) lamina propria

C) cholecystokinin

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
A) gastrin
B) secretin
C) cholecystokinin
D) gastric inhibitor peptide

A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi
B) the vast array of digestive enzymes
C) Brunner'

B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins

Which of the following is not true of saliva?
A) cleanses the mouth
B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
C) moistens food and aids in compacting of the bolus
D) dissolves food chemicals so they can be tasted

C) serous cells and mucous cells

The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
A) goblet cells and squamous epithelial cells
B) parietal cells and glial cells
C) serous cells and mucous cells
D) cuboidal epithelium and ciliated columnar cells

D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
A) only salts and minerals
B) only proteases and amylase
C) mucin, lysozyme, electrolytes, salts, and minerals
D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins

In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
B) is the first site where absorption takes place
C) is the only place where fats are completely digested
D) is the first

B) stomach

Chyme is created in the ________.
A) mouth
B) stomach
C) esophagus
D) small intestine

B) parietal cells

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
A) chief cells
B) parietal cells
C) serous cells
D) mucous neck cells

A) enteroendocrine cells

Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
A) enteroendocrine cells
B

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
B) immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another

Peristaltic waves are ________.
A) segmental regions of the gastrointestinal tract
B) churning movements of the gastrointestinal tract
C) pendular movements of the gastrointestinal tract
D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one poin

B) protein and peptide fragments

Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.
A) starches and complex carbohydrates
B) protein and peptide fragments
C) simple carbohy

A) chief cells of the stomach

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
A) chief cells of the stomach
B) parietal cells of the duodenum
C) Brunner's glands
D) goblet cells of the small intestine

B) amylase

You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
A) gastrin
B) amylase
C) cholecystokinin
D) trypsin

D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite to form the ________.
A) portal vein
B) pancreatic acini
C) bile canaliculus
D) hepatopancreatic ampulla

C) hydrolysis

The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
A) diffusion
B) active transport
C) hydrolysis
D) denatured

C) lipase

Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
A) rennin
B) pepsin
C) lipase
D) cholecystokinin

D) enterogastric

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
A) cephalic
B) gastric
C) intestinal
D) enterogastric

A) B12

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
A) B12
B) K
C) A
D) C

C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands

Chief cells ________.
A) occur in the intestine
B) produce HCl
C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands
D) produce mucin

B) catabolism

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.
A) mastication
B) catabolism
C) anabolism
D) fermentation

A) serosa

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.
A) serosa
B) mucosa
C) muscularis externa
D) submucosa

B) ileum

The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
A) duodenum
B) ileum
C) jejunum
D) pyloric sphincter

A) lipids

Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?
A) lipids
B) carbohydrates
C) proteins
D) starches

D) Calcium

________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a cofactor.
A) Iron
B) Sodium
C) Phosphorus
D) Calcium

A) loose connective tissue

The lamina propria is composed of ________.
A) loose connective tissue
B) dense irregular connective tissue
C) dense regular connective tissue
D) reticular connective tissue

B) Carbohydrates

________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
A) Distension
B) Carbohydrates
C) Peptides
D) Low acidity

B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion

The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
A) absorb nutrients from digested food and store them for future use
B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
C) secrete bu

C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins

Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
A) produce gas
B) absorb bilirubin
C) synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
D) synthesize vitamins C and D

B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus

Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
A) somatic neurons in the spinal cord
B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
C) the rubrospinal tracts
D) the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

A) parietal cells

Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
A) parietal cells
B) zymogenic cells
C) mucous neck cells
D) enteroendocrine cells

C) trypsin

Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
A) dextrinase
B) amylase
C) trypsin
D) lipase

A) bile

A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
A) bile
B) pancreatic juice
C) intestinal juice
D) gastric juice

C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy

How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
A) simple diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
D) bulk flow

C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.

Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
A) Vagus stimulation of the stomach results in decreased secretion of gastric juice.
B) The presence of food in the stomach prevents hormonal control of gastric secretion.
C) Gastric

C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria

Paneth cells ________.
A) are more common in the ileum than in the jejunum
B) are absorptive cells in the small intestine
C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria
D) are located next to the lacteal in a villus

A) the pancreas

You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?
A) the pancreas
B) the buccal glands
C) the thyroid gland
D) the parotid glands

C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.

The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
A) Severe indigestion would occur, caused by the lack of sufficient digestive enzymes.
B) This type of food would cause secretion of gastrin to cease, causing digesti

C) alkalosis

A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the ba

D) nitric oxide

Which of these is not a component of saliva?
A) lysozyme
B) a cyanide compound
C) defensins
D) nitric oxide

B) A

There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________ antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing problems.
A) D
B) A
C) M
D) E