U2 Ch3 Cellular Level


increased concentration inside cell


increased concentration outside cell

selective prmeability restricts materials based on

size, electrical charge, molecular shape, lipid solubility

Lipid solubility regarding cell membrane

non polar can pass easier than poler or ionic compounds


NO ENERGY. Movement of substances from area of HIGH concentration to area of LOW concentration.

Factors influencing diffusion

distance particle has to move, molecule size, temp, concentration gradient, electrical forces

Simple diffusion

materials diffuse directly through plasma membrane (lipid soluable and on polar) Ex: fatty acids, alcohol, o2, co2, steroids, triglycerides.

Channel Mediated

concentration gradient drives movement of solute through a transmembrane channel protein. NEEDS SPECIFIC CHANNEL PROTEIN. Moves polar substances: glucose, ions, amino acids.


Movement of WATER from area of HIGH concentration to area of LOW concentration through a membrane.


A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane

200 mOsm or less

Cell will take on fluid. Net movement INTO cell. Cell gains volume-swells-LYSE. (Hypo=swells)

400 mOsm

Water will leave cell. Concentration of solution is greater so net movement of water OUT of cell. CRENATING


decreased mOsm

Dehydrated RBC


Overhydrated RBC


Facilitated Diffusion

NO ENERGY Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels (glucose, amino acids)

sodium potassium pump

1 ATP moves 3 sodium out and 2 potassium in

sodium potassium pump

Actively moves Na+ out of cells and moves Ka+ in


The process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell


Cell drinking


Cell eating
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells


Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material EXITS CELL


A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.


Division of the cytoplasm during cell division


Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases


Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms


Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell


Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell


chromosomes uncoil into chromatin, nuclear membrane forms, the nucleolus reappears

DNA Polymerase

Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule

RNA Polymerase

Enzyme that links together the growing chain of RNA nucleotides during transcription using a DNA strand as a template


unwind DNA strands


permanent change in the sequence of base nucleotides