Chapter 23: "The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815

How was French society structured during the Old Regime and how did this
contribute to the start of the French Revolution?

Old Regime: feudal system still in place
- People were divided into three classes, or estates
- 1. First estate: clergy
- 2. Second estate: nobles
- 3. Third estate: common folk
- King had divine right to rule over people

First Estate

-Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church
-Less than 1% of population
-Owned 10% of France's land
-Provided education, help to poor, and gave 2% of income to governmet

Second Estate

-Wealthy nobles
-2% of population
-Many were government officials
-Owned 20% of the land

Third Estate

-98 % of France's population
1. Bourgeoisie: merchants and artisans
---- Well- educated, most wealthy of third estate, highly
taxed, enjoyed Enlightenment ideas like liberty and
2. 2nd group: working class
---- Low salaries, often unemployed, oft

How did the Enlightenment contribute to the outbreak
of revolution in France?

Enlightened ideas of liberty, equality,
and democracy sparked interest in
changing the traditional structure of
society and government
- Peasants wanted social mobility and a say in
- Ideas about natural rights from Rousseau and
- Peop

How did the American Revolution contribute to the outbreak of revolution in France?

Success of American Revolution gave faith to the French
- Debt for aiding Americans hurt France's economy
- United States' new social contract, The Constitution, made Enlightenment ideas of natural rights a reality and not a fantasy anymore
- In re

How did France's economic problems contribute to the Revolution?

-Economy in decline due to an increase of population, heavy taxation, high cost of living, poor harvests
-In extreme debt because of extravagant spending by monarchs, and King Louis XVI inherited debt, spending money on American Revolution, and bankers re

Louis XVI

-Last king in the line of the Bourbon Monarchs
-Married Marie Antoinette
-Took the throne at age 20
- Louis XVI was unprepared to take the throne
when his parents died
- Indecisive and allowed matters to drift
- Lacked self confidence
- Paid little attent

Marie Antoinette

-Member of the royal family of Austria
- Married Louis XVI when she was 14 years old
- Had a hard time adjusting to married life in
-Marie Antoinette spent most of her time
doing costly activities
- Accused of ignorance, extravagance and

Why did the king call a meeting of the Estates-General in May, 1789?

-Louis XVI put off dealing with taxes and increasing
prices until France faced bankruptcy
- When France became bankrupt, Louis tried to tax
the aristocrats
- Second Estate forced Louis to call a meeting of the


-An assembly of representatives
from all three estates to get approval for the tax
- Third Estate was given "double representation"
The clergy and nobles dominated the Estates-General throughout the Middle Ages
- Each estate had one vote
- Two priv

Why did the delegates of the Third Estate leave the Estates-General and form the
National Assembly?

-The Third Estate delegates were eager to make changes in the govt, and wanted more power
-Wanted to get rid of the absolute monarchy and
begin a representative gov't
1789-the National Assembly was established
- A clergyman named Abb� Siey�s spoke for the

Tennis Court Oath

-On June 20, 1789, delegates were locked
out of their meeting room
- Delegates broke down a door in an indoor
tennis court
- They had planned to stay in the court until
there was a new constitution
- June 27, King approves joint meeting of
Estates General

What was the significance of the Bastille and its fall?

July 14, 1789, a mob tried to get
gunpowder from Bastille
- Bastille fell into the control of citizens
- Became a symbolic act of revolution to the
French people
- July 14, is a French national holiday

What happened during the Great Fear?

- Rumors spread that nobles were hiring
outlaws to terrorize peasants
- Senseless panic throughout France
- Peasants became outlaws
- Peasants broke into nobles' manor houses
- October 1789, around 6,000 Parisian woman rioted
over the rising of bread
- Wo

Declaration of the Rights of Man

-Reflected the ideas of enlightenment and the
Declaration of Independence
? Did not apply to women
? Stated:
? "Men are born and remain free and equal in rights"
? "The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural... rights of man.

What reforms did the National Assembly make in terms of the nobility and the Church?

-Peasants refused to pay taxes because they were
emboldened by the spirit of reform and Church officials were now going to be paid as state
-The Catholic Church lost its lands and political independence, and the Constitution provided that bishop

What kind of government did the new Constitution of 1791 create?

-Limited constitutional monarchy
-gave the Legislative Assembly power to create French law, stripped King and his ministers of a lot of authority (not executive power to enforce laws)

What was the
major problem faced by the Legislative Assembly

-A new assembly created by the National Assembly- had the power to create laws and approve or prevent any war the king had declared on other nations
Problems: Legislative assembly lost many members
? Food shortages and government debt
? Assembly members t


-Nobles and others who fled France during the peasant
-extreme right
-hoped to undo the revolution and restore the old regime


-extreme left, lower class
-Parisian wage-earners and small shop-keepers
-Wanted a greater voice in government, lower food prices,
and an end to all food shortages
? Supported the revolution and believed
in new changes and reforms in the

Why did France, Austria, and Prussia go to war in 1792

? Other European countries were concerned that
inspiration for peasant revolts from France would
spread to their areas
? Austria and Prussia proposed that Louis XVI should
return to his previous position as absolute ruler
? Legislative Assembly responded

How did this (france vs. austria and prussia) war go for France in 1792 and 1793?

-Began badly b/c French were poorly equipped
-Royal family was massacred and imprisoned by mobs
-affected daily life in Paris- 1,200 people died during these attacks
-The Insurrectionary Commune was now
running the country

Causes of the September Massacres?

Parisians felt that French troops were
failing to hold back Prussian forces
? Angry citizens took the law into their
own hands
? Parisians raided prisons and
murdered over 1,000 prisoners
? Royalists, nobles, and clergymen
were killed

Results of the September Massacres?

-Members of the Legislative Assembly gave up
limited monarchy- king deposed, set aside constitution, dissolved their assembly
? Called for election of a new legislature and
created the National Convention
? The French also got lucky and won a battle

What was the role of the Jacobin Club in the French Revolution?

-Leaders of the mobs on the street had more power than the gov- very influential
-wanted to remove the king and establish a republic

What was the role of Jean Paul Marat in the French Revolution?

-Prominent radical leader
-edited a radical newspaper where he wrote about how he wanted to rid France of the enemies of the Revolution
-Seen as a hero to the sans-culottes but an enemy
to others

What was the role of Georges Danton in the French Revolution?

-Revolutionary leader who devoted to the rights of Paris' poor people
-Joined Jacobin Club

What actions did the National Convention take?

-Abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic
-Gave adult male citizens the right to vote and hold office (women could not)
-reduced Louis XVI's role and along with the Jacobins, accused him of treason and sentenced him to death (guillotine)

What was the significance of Maximilien Robespierre? How did he try to create a "republic of virtue" in France?

-At a time when dozens of leaders struggled to gain power, Robespierre began to slowly gather control
-Robespierre and his supporters set out to build a "republic of virtue" by trying to wipe out any trace of France's past monarchy and nobility
-People di

Committee of Public Safety

-Robespierre became the leader (originally was Danton)- decided who should be considered enemies of the Republic
-Often tried people in the morning and then guillotined them that same afternoon

What was the Reign of Terror?

-Time period where Robespierre ruled almost as dictator (he said this time enabled French citizens to remain true to the ideals of the Rev)
-Marie Antoinette was victim to the terror
-"Enemies of the republic" were people who
challenged Robespierre's lead

How did the Reign of Terror eventually come to an end?

-The National Convention felt threatened by Robespierre
-Turned on him and protested for him to be arrested
-On July 28, 1794 he was sent to the guillotine
-His death marked the end to the Reign of Terror


National Convention leaders drafted a new form
of government
? This government:
? Gave power to the upper middle class
? Called for a two-house legislature
? Had an executive body consisting of 5 men
? The Directory is referring to the executive body
of t

What were Napoleon's early accomplishments?

-Began military training at nine
years old
? Attended military academy in France
? At 16 years old, became a
lieutenant in the French artillery
? Fought in French Revolution
(1795 - 1802)
? By 1799 known as "The General

How did Napoleon seize power in France in 1799?

-1799- directory had lost control of political
? Napoleon was urged to seize political power by
Abbe Sieyes
? Napoleon was put in charge of the military and
drove out one chamber of the National
? Assumed directional powers as first

How were the years 1800, 1802, and 1804 significant in Napoleon's rise to power in France?

1800-plebiscite (vote of the people) was held to approve a new constitution- the people were desperate for strong leadership and voted for the constitution which gave Napoleon all real power
1802- Europe was at peace for the first time in 10 years which a

How did Napoleon bring order and stability to the French economy?

-Kept changes that came with the
revolution and supported laws that were beneficial to
central government and helped to achieve
the goal of the revolution
? steady flow of tax money made for sound
financial management and stronger
Dismissed corrup

How did Napoleon reduce government corruption and improve the delivery of government services?

Through lycees- Napoleon dismissed corrupt
officials and set up lycees or governments run schools to provide his government with trained officials
? Children who attended this school included ones of the wealthy class as well as ordinary citizens
? After

How did Napoleon make peace with the Catholic Church in France?

The clergy and the peasants wanted to restore the
position of the church in France
? Napoleon approached the Pope Pius VII in 1800
with a proposal to reconcile his regime with the
? Napoleon signed a concordat on April 8, 1801
that created a new re

Napoleonic Code and it's ups and downs

A system of laws created by
Napoleon during his rule
? Pros
? gave the country a uniform set of laws
? eliminated many injustices
? Cons
? Limited liberty
? promoted order and authority over
individual rights
-Restricted rights earned by the
French after

What happened to the New World territories of Saint-Domingue and Louisiana controlled by Napoleon?

SD: 1789, Civil war erupted, slaves under leadership of Toussaint L' Ouverture had seized control of the productive colony of Haiti
? Slaves in the colony demanded their freedom
-1801- Napoleon decided to regain the territory and restore its sugar industr

How did Napoleon conquer Europe?

Napoleon had control over the Austrian Netherlands, parts of Italy and Switzerland
? He was eager to expand his power even farther
? Napoleon's ambitions worried Britain
? Causing them to put together the Third Coalition with Russia, Austria, and Sweden

Battle of Trafalgar

- A naval defeat that was as important as his victories on land
-1805- Spanish coast, Horatio Nelson and troops (British) beat Napoleon and troops
-Two major results: assured supremacy of British navy and forced Napoleon to give up his plans of invading B

What was the French Empire created by Napoleon in 1812 like?

-Only countries free from his control: Britain, Sweden, Portugal, Ottoman Empire-- showing how vast
-had puppet rulers
-huge but unstable
-only good for 5 years and then it fell to pieces

Causes and results of the Continental System

Causes: wanted to cut off all communication and trade between GB and other Euro nations, so he issued a blockade known as the Continental System
-wanted to destroy Britain's economy and make continental Europe more self-sufficient
Results: Failed, nobody

What were the causes of the Peninsular War?

Portugal ignored Napoleon's Continental
System because they wanted to maintain a
good relationship with Britain
? Napoleon was angry and invaded
Portugal, going through Spain
? Spain was in bad shape at the time, so he
sent troops to observe them in Octob

What were the results of the Peninsular War?

Guerilla warfare: small group combatants use mobile
tactics (ambushes, raids, etc.) to combat a larger, less
mobile formal army
? Everyday French troops were ambushed, supply
trains were raided, and individual soldiers were
? The British found the

Why did Napoleon invade Russia in 1812?

? Invasion of Russia was Napoleon's final
and biggest mistake + reason for his
? Alexander I (Russian czar) had been
allies with France and Napoleon
? Alliance between Russia and France
began to break down
? Reasons for invasion
? Napoleon had a

What were the results of the invasion
of Russia?

Invasion was a disastrous mistake
? lost thousands of men/supplies
? Enemies of the French took advantage of Napoleon's
weakness- Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden
? Joined together in the Fourth Coalition
? Napoleon lost hundreds of thousands of men

During his first exile, when did Napoleon see an opportunity to return to France and seize power?

After being exiled to Elba, an island off the Italian
coast, a new king came to rule France, Louis XVIII
? He was unpopular among the peasants, who
suspected him of wanting to undo the
Revolution's land reforms
? Napoleon escaped from Elba on March 1, 181

Hundred Days

Napoleon was previously exiled and then he came back and ruled for 100 days

Battle of Waterloo

Ended the 100 days
? British and Prussian forces attacked the
? Two days later, French started to retreat
and British and Prussian forces forced
French to retreat faster
? British shipped Napoleon to St.Helena,
and he lived there in exile for six y

What was Napoleon's legacy for France?

-his law code and some reforms were lasting in French gov
-his defeat opened the door for the freed European countries to establish a new order
-military genius and strong leader

Congress of Vienna

A meeting of representatives from
each country to discuss what to do next in
Europe after the many wars in order
to make peace
? Alliance of countries that defeated
? Sixth Coalition: Russia, Prussia, Austria,
and Great Britain
? Three countries

Klemens von Metternich

-distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Rev and wanted to keep things as they were
? The years he was in office (in austria) are referred
to as the Age of Metternich because of his huge influence of European politics
-had 3 goals

What were the three goals of Metternich and the Congress of Vienna, and how were they achieved?

1: wanted to prevent france from future aggression by surrounding France with strong countries
-formed kingdom of the netherlands, german confederation, recognized switzerland as independent nation, added genoa
2: restore a balance of power so no country

In what ways was the Congress of Vienna "a political triumph"?

The Congress of Vienna was a great achievement
? Did not cause any of the future wars
? More successful than many peace meetings in history
? For the first time, all nations of an entire continent were
cooperating to control political affairs
? Five great

What were the Holy Alliance and the Concert of Europe?

Holy Alliance- a league with members Czar Alexander of Russia, Emperor Francis I of Austria, and King Frederick William III of Prussia, loosely bound them together
Concert of Europe: series of alliances devised by Metternich which assured that nations wou

What was the long-term legacy of the Congress of Vienna?

-influnced policies for 100 years
-a balance of power diminished the size and the power of France, while the power of Britain and Prussia increased
-nationalism grew in countries, which exploded into revolutions- new nations = formed
Old ideas about who s