Chapter 14- The Study of Nails

the primary purpose of the free edge of the nail is to:

protect the tip of the finger and/or toe

the nail bed is attached to the bone by:

nerves

attached at the base of the nail, under the skin and inside the mantle is the:

nail root

what is the skin that touches, overlaps and surrounds the nail?

perionychium

the lunula is the half-moon shape at the base of the nail that appears white due to a reflection of light at the point where the:

nail matrix and nail bed meet

the active tissue that generates cells that harden as they move outward from the root to the nail is called the nail

matrix

which of the following components are considered appendages of the skin?

nails

what is the cuticle that overlaps the lunula at the base of the nail?

eponychium

what is the deep pocket-like area that holds the root and the matrix of the nail?

mantle

the loose and pliable overlapping skin around the nail is the:

cuticle

the skin under the free edge of the nail is the:

hyponychium

the folds of skin on either side of the nail groove are called the?

nail wall

the tracks on either side of the nail that the nail moves on as it grows are the nail:

grooves

jane accidentally closed the car door on her finger. the nail on that finger eventually fell off and one year later had not grown back. what nail structure has possibly been permanently damaged?

matrix

what is the average growth rate of nails in adults?

1/8 inch per month

which of the following conditions does NOT indicate a decreasing rate of nail growth?

summer

under normal conditions, the growth of a new nail plate takes approximately:

4 to 6 months

which nail structure consists of many nerves and blood vessels for continuous nourishment?

nail bed

any disease, disorder or condition of the nail is called:

onychosis

nails with a sign of disease require:

referral to a physician

a healthy nail is smooth, curved, translucent, pinkish in color, and:

is without hollows or wavy ridges

the technical name for the disease referred to as ringworm of the nail is:

onychomychosis

all of the following descriptions identify possible causes of paronychia EXCEPT:

systemic disease

tinea pedis appears as itching and peeing of the skin on the feet and must be:

referred to a physician

which of the following nail diseases is NOT caused by fungus?

onychatrophia

onychia is an inflammation of the:

nail matrix

vertical lines down the nail plate that may be caused by illness or injury are clled:

furrows

systemic or long-term illness or nervous disturbance can cause:

spoon nails

the disorder in which the nail grows into the edge of the nail grooves causing ingrown toenails is called:

onychocryptosis

uneven growth of a nail may cause:

wavy ridges

trimming toenails straight across can help avoid:

ingrown toenails

small white spots on the nail caused by an injury in which a mall separation occurs between the nail and the nail bed is called:

leuconychia

blood trapped under the nails is a condition referred to as:

bruised nails

what condition results when the cuticle becomes overly dry and splits?

hangnail

which of the following conditions would cause you to recommend that cuticles be pushed back after showering?

pterygium

what is another name for onychauxis?

hypertrophy

a thickening of the nail plate or an abnormal outgrowth of the nail is called:

onychauxis

what would be the correct response if a client arrives for a manicure and exhibits signs of onychophagy?

offer to perform a weekly nail service, including polish

improper filing, injuries or harsh chemicals could be causes of:

split nails

which of the following conditions is caused by a nervous habit?

onychophagy

what is the nail condition that can be indicated by a yellow discoloration that turns black and begins to smell bad?

nail fungus

onychorrhexis is a term indicating:

split or brittle nails

discoloration of the nail can indicate serious problems in which following parts of the nail?

nail bed

upon discovery of a nail fungus on a client's hands or feet, the cosmetologist needs to:

refer client to a physician

what is the job of the manicurist when determining the shape of the client's nails?

enhance the client's natural nail shape

an implement that shortens, shapes and smooths rough edges of natural nails is called a(n):

emery board

what product may be used to remove nail stains?

hydrogen peroxide

what is the function of a nail dryer when used during a nail service?

aid in fast drying and protection from being sticky or dull

the finger bowl should contain warm water and:

antibacterial soap

what is generally the wattage for a bulb found in a lamp used for close detail work?

40 watt

how should implements involved in a blood spill incident be handled?

disinfect implements with a broad spectrum disinfectant

which of the following steps describes the proper disinfecting procedure for implements following use in a manicure service?

wash implements with soap and water then place in disinfectant

how often should a disinfectant be replaced?

as directed by manufacturer

when removing polish from the nails, work from:

base to tip

when performing a manicure you must remove any traces of oil, lotion, or cream:

before applying polish

when is it appropriate to offer a hand massage during a manicure?

prior to polishing the nails

how should nail polish be applied?

using light sweeping strokes

what should you use to remove excess polish at the edge of the nail?

an orangewood stick wrapped in cotton with the tip saturated in polish remover

the manicurist will apply nail polish:

over the base coat

during the massage portion of a pedicure service apply pressure to the muscular tissue on either side of:

the shinbone

brittle nails or dry aging hands could receive some benefit from:

hot oil or cream manicuring

following an acrylic nail service, brushes should be cleaned:

in brush cleaner

because most nail product vapors are flammable:

smoking should not be allowed in the salon

avoid the use of acetone polish remover on:

acrylic nails

how much of the nail bed should a nail tip cover

1/3 to 1/2

a dehydrant is used to help remove moisture and oil and to prevent the growth of:

fungi

when should a dehydrating product be applied to the nail?

before a sculptured nail service

after applying the dehydrant and primer during a sculptured nail service, you should:

avoid touching the nail

rebalancing the nail during a fill-in nail service means to file and buff the nail to blend:

remaining acrylic to new growth area

if a nail fungus is found prior to performing a fill-in nail service, which of the following steps should be taken?

remove the artificial nail