language and speech development

AAE language

No copula/auxilliary is/are, habitual be, no -s ending on 3rd person, is/was replace are/were, no -s possessive marker, yall/they, multiple negation, ain't

AAE sounds

consonant cluster reduction, t or f for voiceless th, d or v for voiced th, omit l & r, metathesis, diphthong reduction, differing stress patterns

Spanish language

Adjective after noun, omit s, ed & articles, double negatives, no before verb, more before adjective, omit subjective pronoun, adverb after verb, pronoun modifier

Spanish sounds

ch/sh, b/v, FC devoiced, i/I, e/ae, a/ae, schwa before initial consonants, deaspirated stops, trilled r, d&z/th, silent initial h, no "dg

Asian language

omit plurals, copula, possesive, past-tense morpheme, conjunctions, double negative, misorder interrogatives, S-V-O, omission of do, comparitives, present-tense, past-tense double marking

Asian sounds

reduce final consonant cluster, FCD, devoicing, p/f, v/w, b/v, sh/ch, epenthesis, no th, vowel reduction, r/l confusion, shorten syllables

solitary play

doesn't notice others while playing
2-3 years

parallet play

mimics others but doesn't actively engage with them

associative play

more interested in each other than the toys they are using

cooperative play

some organization to play; adopt roles & act as a group
4 years

first word

12 months

50 words

18 months

one word utterances

12-18 months

1-2 word utterances

18-24 months

starts to combine words once they have ____ words


act that secures free appropriate public education

individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)

tier 1

high quality instruction & behavioral supports in general education classroom
core instruction

tier 2

specialized instruction in smaller group
progress/performance fall behind

tier 3

individualized intervention by sped if referral & evaluation for sped determine eligibility

interdisciiplinary team

multiple disciplines interact, collaboratively write report and plan

transdisciplinary teams

multiple specialists work together initial assessment, but only 1 or 2 provide services

multidisciplinary teams

multiple disciplines, individual evaluations & reports, little interacation


tongue blade raised
r, l, n, s, z, t, d, dg, ch, zh, sh, th


force air through small/constricted opening, intense noise
ch, dg, zh, sh, s, z, f, v


no stoppage or point of constriction
n, m, ng, l, r, w, j


air obstruction, narrow constriction, friction noise
affricates, fricatives, stops


high frequency, longer duration, more stridency
ch, dg, s, z, sh, zh


m, n, ng


h, zh, sh, s, z, th, f, v


ch, dg


p, b, d, t, k, g


w, j
quick transition from partially constricted to open state


l, r

age 3 sounds

m, n, h, w, p

age 4 sounds

f, k, t, g, b, d

age 5 sounds

y, v, ing

age 6 sounds

l, j, sh, zh, ch, wh

age 7 sounds

s, z

age 8 sounds

r, th, blends

processes disappear by age 3

reduplication, weak syllable deletion, consonant assimilation, prevocalic voicing, fronting, FCD, diminutization

processes persist after age 3

FC devoicing, consonant cluster reduction, stopping, epenthesis, gliding, depalatization, vocalization


immigrants assume american cultural attributes


degree to which immigrants give up their culture of origin & take on characteristics of the new culture

bicultural acculturation

fully involved in both their own and the host cultures


error in L2 produced by influence of L1

silent period

much listening & comprehension, little output; use this time to comprehend new language before producing it; 3-6 months


alternating or switching between two languages

language loss

lose skills in L1

simultaneous bilingual acquisition

two languages acquired simultaneously from infancy

sequential bilingual acquisition

introduced to L2 later

prader willi syndrome

deletion part of chromosome 15
behavior, ID, short stature
constant hunger - obesity
delayed puberty

trisomy 13

extra chromosome 13
severe birth defects, midline facial deformities, cleft lip & palate

trisomy 21/DS

extra chromosome 21
hypotonia, flat face, ID, thyroid/heart, large tongue, breathy, CHL