Kandell Chapter 21

Each of the following would cause an increase in blood pressure except __________.

an inhibitor of angiotensin II

The cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata control __________.

-peripheral resistance-cardiac contractility-heart rate**All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

Where are the sensors for the arterial baroreceptor reflex located?

carotid sinus and aortic arch

If blood pressure is increased at the arterial baroreceptors, what would happen with the activity level of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS)?

increased PNS activity and decreased SNS activity

Which of the following would cause vasodilation of arterioles?

decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system

Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?

an increase in heart rate and contractility

A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?

an increase in heart contractility

Which organ produces renin and erythropoietin to help maintain normal blood pressure and hematocrit?


In the case of hemorrhage, the body mobilizes all these defenses except _________.

decreased ADH secretion

Which blood vessel returns blood to the left atrium?

left and right pulmonary veins

True or false? The blood within the pulmonary trunk contains highly oxygenated blood.


Into which blood vessel does the left ventricle directly pump blood?

ascending aorta

In the fetal circulation, the foramen ovale permit blood to flow directly from the right to left atria; the ductus arteriosus permits blood to flow from the pulmonary trunk to the aorta. Are these two statements true or false?

Both statements are true.

The ________ carries nutrient-rich blood into the liver.

hepatic portal vein

In the capillaries, hydrostatic pressure (HP) is exerted by __________.

blood pressure

The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the __________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the __________.

capillary; interstitial fluid

Which of the following would reflect the typical net hydrostatic pressure (HP) at the arterial end of the capillary?

34 mm Hg

The colloid osmotic pressure in the capillary is caused by __________.

proteins in the blood

Which net pressure draws fluid into the capillary?

net osmotic pressure

Reabsorption of fluid into the capillary takes place at the arterial end or venous end of the capillary?


Vasomotion refers to contraction-relaxation cycles of the __________.

precapillary sphincters

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________.


Arrange the structures in the following list in the order that blood will encounter as it flows from the output side to the input side of the cardiovascular flow circuit.1. venules2. arterioles3. capillaries4. elastic arteries5. medium veins6. large veins7. muscular arteries

4, 7, 2, 3, 1, 5, 6

Capillaries that have a complete lining are called

continuous capillaries.

After blood leaves the capillaries, it enters the


Venous valves are responsible for

channeling blood toward the heart.

The layer of the arteriole wall that can produce vasoconstriction is the

tunica media.

Capillaries with a perforated lining are called

fenestrated capillaries.

Peripheral resistance depends on all of the following factors except __________.

blood colloid osmotic pressure

In liver disease, the production of plasma proteins can be greatly reduced. This often leads to __________.

decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

In what vessel is blood pressure the highest?


Clinically, the term blood pressure usually refers to

arterial pressure.

Each of the following factors would increase peripheral resistance, except


Turbulent blood flow occurs

- when there are irregularities in the vessel wall.-when blood pressure is excessively high.-when there are sudden changes in vessel diameter.-at high flow rates.**All of the answers are correct.

If a person has a blood pressure of 120/90, his mean arterial pressure would be ________ mm Hg.


Edema may occur when

-blood pressure is high.-capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated.-the plasma concentration of protein is reduced.-endothelial permeability goes up.**All of the answers are correct.

When a person rises quickly from a sitting position,

-heart rate is reflexively elevated.-venous return is decreased.-the carotid baroreceptors become less active.-reflex vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels occurs.**All of the answers are correct.

Which of the following statements is false concerning the movement of fluid between capillaries and interstitial space?

The net filtration pressure is usually zero.

Which of the following equations shows the correct relation between blood flow (F), pressure (P), and resistance (R)?


As blood circulates from arteries into capillaries, the total cross-sectional area of capillaries

increases and causes the blood velocity to decrease.

Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP) decreases in starving children because:

starvation in children results in a protein deficiency and the liver cannot produce enough protein to maintain BCOP

Calculate the net filtration pressure (NFP) with a blood hydrostatic pressure of 40 mm Hg and a blood colloid osmotic pressure of 25 mm Hg. Then determine if the blood gains or loses fluid.NFP = ________ and results in a fluid ________ .

15 mm Hg; loss

Edema may occur (only) when

the plasma concentration of protein is reduced, capillary hydrostatic pressure is elevated, and the capillary endothelium permeability goes up.

When muscle cells contract they release substances that cause nearby precapillary sphincters to relax. This is an example of __________.


Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

medulla oblongata

Fear can result in

increased stimulation of the cardioaccelerator center by higher brain centers.

Elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased

salt and water loss through the kidneys.

Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood will result in decreased

parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.

Vickie has a tumor that secretes excess amounts of the hormone aldosterone. Because of the elevated level of hormone, she exhibits

both an increase in blood pressure and an increase in stored sodium ion.

Which of the following conditions is least likely to lead to renin release?


Which of the following changes doesn't occur during exercise compared to rest?

skin blood flow is lower

To defend blood volume against dehydration, the body

-accelerates reabsorption of water at the kidneys.-increases water intake.-experiences a recall of interstitial fluids.-experiences an increase in the blood colloidal osmotic pressure.**All of the answers are correct.

ADH and aldosterone secretion are part of the body's long-term compensation for

a serious hemorrhage.

Homeostatic mechanisms in response to blood loss include all of the following, except

inhibition of EPO secretion.

The pulmonary circuit begins in the pulmonary trunk; it continues through the lungs, finally ending at the right atrium. Are these two statements true or false?

The first statement is true; the second is false.

The right pulmonary veins carry ________ blood to the ________ .

oxygenated; left atrium

Which of these arteries does not branch directly from the aorta?

femoral arteries

The brachial artery branches to form the ulnar and __________ arteries.


After passing the first rib, the subclavian artery becomes the ________ artery.


Near the level of vertebra L4, the aorta branches to form the ________ arteries.

common iliac

Which of the following is a deep vein of the forearm?


At the level of the first rib, the axillary vein becomes the ________ vein.


The fusion of the brachiocephalic veins forms the

superior vena cava.

An important artery that supplies blood to the brain is the ________ artery.

internal carotid

When the popliteal vein reaches the femur, it becomes the ________ vein.


The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood in the adult circulation; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood in the fetal circulation. Are these two statements true or false?

Both statements are true.

The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the __________.

ligamentum arteriosum

As the heart ages, which of these changes is not normally seen?

increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton