city poli

erie canal

A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship fin

municiple bonds/ bonds

Bonds issued by state and local governments,
A certificate issued by a government or private company which promises to pay back with interest the money borrowed from the buyer of the certificate: The city issued bonds to raise money for putting in new sew

charter

A document that gives the holder the right to organize settlements in an area

john dillon

The Iowa Supreme Court judge who, in 1868, held that local governments could rule only in areas explicitly permitted by the state government

dillon rule

A principle holding that local governments are creations of state government and their powers and responsibilities are defined by the state.

Baker v. carr

case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state

multi-member districts

districts have more than one rep.

mal-apportionment

Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population.

trolley

These mass transit cars moves people from the city to the suburbs

omnibus

A long motor vehicle for passengers

liquor license

state authorized permit that allows the license holder to sell alcoholic beverages in compliance with state

Patronage

(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support

civil service

A system of hiring and promotion based on the merit principle and the desire to create a nonpartisan government service.

political machine

A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity

assimilation

Adopting the traits of another culture. Often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country.

universal male suffrage

The extension of the right to vote to all males regardless of social standing or race, whose movement had begun in the early-mid 1800's

Boss (machine politics)

the control of the organization, represented the executive authority

precinct captain

a political leader of the ward, precinct, or neighborhood level, subordinate to the boss. "... a network of ward and precinct captains, each of whom looked after his local constituents.

Tammany

political machine that controlled politics in NYC in the late 1800s. Controlled by Boss William Marcy Tweed who was exposed by the political cartoons of Thomas Nast in Harpers Weekly. Nast is the father of the symbols of political parties, the modern imag

Tammany Hall

was a New York City political organization that endured for nearly two centuries. Formed in 1789 in opposition to the Federalist Party, its leadership often mirrored that of the local Democratic Party's executive committee.

george washington plunkitt

Member of the New York House of Representatives and New York Senate; known for his saying of 'honest graft'

charles murray

Stated that the poor respond rationally to economic incentives, he believed that welfare presented the wrong long-term incentives with regard to work and marriage.

Boss Tweed

William Tweed, head of Tammany Hall, NYC's powerful democratic political machine in 1868. Between 1868 and 1869 he led the Tweed Reign, a group of corrupt politicians in defrauding the city. Example: Responsible for the construction of the NY court house;

Richard Daley

calls in Chicago Police & national guard to control protestors; last of big city bosses; violence was overwhelming & Humphrey wins nomination pledging to adopt some of the peace platform from McCarthy

jim pendergast

first big city boss of kansis city missori

abraham reuf of san francisco

driving force between union labor party, ran san franciscos city macine

social reforms

...

social gospel

A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

political realignment

Roosevelt's legacy still defines the Democratic Party; he forged an enduring New Deal Coalition of big city machines, the White South, intellectuals, labor unions, Catholics, Jews, and Westerners. In 1936, African-Americans were added to the coalition (Af

great awakening

A period where a new religious movement, lead by pastor Jonathan Edwards, who become famous with his sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," inspired many Americans, whose piety had been steadily decreasing, to rejoin the Congregational (or Puritan

prohibition

..., the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment 18th

hazen pingree

Detroit reform mayor - brought honesty to city hall - got rid of political machine

jane addams

the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes

lincoln steffens

United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.

ward system

each council member is elected from a single-member district, benefits residentially concentrated minorities. Like a district.

at large voting

entire population elects candidates instead of districts

strong mayor system

A type of government usually in large cities under which the mayor has strong executive powers

weak mayor system,

A municipal government in which the mayor lacks true executive powers, such as the ability to veto council decisions or appoint department heads.

Galveston Plan

Commission form of government which came about after Hurricane Galveston designed to elect commissioners with one being appointed mayor with no extra power to preside over the council. Many larger cities adopted this plan.

Des Moines Plan

five member commission, adoption of initiative, referendum, and recall: non-partison at large elections and a civil service system. expaned rapidly sought to bring less taxation, more efficent public service and a better class of men to govt.

commission-manager form of govt

elected body of city officals that handle legislator and a manager who makes major decisions, and wields representative power on behalf of the citizens. The city manager is, in turn, responsible for hiring a city staff to carry out implementation of city

home rule

allows cities to write their own charters, choose their own type of government, and manage their own affairs

Frederick taylor

American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants

muckraker

A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upto

building codes

City Ordinances require construction standards be met when buildings are being built

great migration

movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920

red summer of 1919

Used to describe the bloody race riots that occurred during the summer and autumn of 1919. Race riots erupted in several cities in both the North and South of the United States. The three with the highest number of fatalities happened in Chicago, Washingt

boll weevil

a beetle which feeds on cotton buds and flowers; came to US (from Mexico to Texas)

national origin immigration act

limited the annual number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, down from the 3% cap set by the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, accor

restrictive covenant steering

An agreement among neighbors not to sell or rent to African Americans or other racial minorities

block busting

when real estate agents telling people that blacks or Indians were going to move next door to them so they could buy the peoples' house for very cheap and sell it for double

quotas

the percentage of a community or district that was allowed to be made up of minorities

james curley

contoled bosten through the irish and was mayor, ran a political macine and was currpt

fiorella laguardia

La Guardia revitalized New York City and restored public faith in City Hall. He unified the transit system, directed the building of low-cost public housing, public playgrounds, and parks, constructed airports, reorganized the police force, defeated the p

model t

first affordable car built by Henry Ford; sturdy, reliable, inexpensive, only came in black

bedroom suburb

a suburb occupied mainly by the homes of commuters.

llewellyn park, ny

...

gi bill

1944- gave benifits to to WW2 veterans including financial assistance for veterans wanting to go to college, buy a home, prefered treatment to veterans who wanted to apply for government jobs

hart-cellar act 1965

Does away with the quota system and creates the "illegal alien" for migrants

kerner commission/gov kerner busing

The report berated federal and state governments for failed housing, education and social-service policies. The report also aimed some of its sharpest criticism at the mainstream media. "The press has too long basked in a white world looking out of it, if

national assoc of real estate board

favored a federally funded program of urban renewal even though it rejected public housing becasue it didnt want privete realestate to compete with public government owned realestate.

public housing

Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at a 30 percent of the families' incomes.

cabrini-green

was a Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) public housing project located on the Near North Side of Chicago, Illinois, United States. At its peak, Cabrini-Green was home to 15,000 people,[2] living in mid- and high-rise apartment buildings totaling 3,607 units

slum clearance

Title I of the Housing Act of 1949 set in motion the obliteration of the neighborhood. Robert Moses, in his position as chairman of the New York City Slum Clearance Committee, condemned the area, largely on the basis of median household income. It was raz

negro removal

two thirds of all people removed from their homes by public housing projects were negros , this left them with no other choice but to abandon their hometowns

justin herman of san francisco

) was an American public administrator. From 1951 to 1959 he was head of the regional office of the Housing and Home Finance Agency in San Francisco, California.[1]:18 From 1959 until his death in 1971 he was head of the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency

housing and home finance agency

...

mortgage

the charging of real (or personal) property by a debtor to a creditor as security for a debt (especially one incurred by the purchase of the property), on the condition that it shall be returned on payment of the debt within a certain period.

write down

...

urban renewal

...

national housing act of 1934

Established US Housing Authority which could borrow $ to lend to local agencies for public housing projects

servicemen's readjustment act of 1944

Signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22, 1944, this act, also known as the GI Bill, provided veterans of the Second World War funds for college education, unemployment insurance, and housing.

housing act 1949

Act passed by Congress that's goal was to provide a decent home for every family in America, funded by public housing and urban renewal programs. Ended up making things worse

veterans admin

a Federal agency that administers benefits provided by law for veterans of the armed forces

title VIII, civil rights act 1968

is a landmark part of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin and made it a federal crime to "by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone

income eligibility restrictions

set that you could not move into a blace if you income was to great or to low from the reistriction peramiters, was a way to keep poors out of nice nighborhoods and stop rich people from buying all the poor property.

public housing

housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to residents with low incomes, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes

central business districts

The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.

interstate

National network of highways connecting US cities

national highway system

a highway system that had been established by the 1920s. It led to the development of o
dd-numbered north-south
(
US 41
) roads and
even-numbered east-west
(
US 30
) routes.

gasoline tax

na

inter-modal surface transport efficiency act of 1992

The Act presented an overall intermodal approach to highway and transit funding with collaborative planning requirements, giving significant additional powers to metropolitan planning organizations.created high priority corridors, railroads most nessesary

ice-tea

how tou pronounce the intermodal surface transport efficency acy

flexing (transportation)

NA

transportation equity act

suport metropolitan plannng, increase safety and accessibilty, enhance enviornmental initiatives

MPO

s a federally mandated and federally funded transportation policy-making organization in the United States that is made up of representatives from local government and governmental transportation authorities. MPOs were introduced by the Federal-Aid Highwa