Chapter 10: Carbohydrates

Aldose = Carbohydrate with _____ group (_____ and _____)

aldehyde, glyceraldehyde, glucose

Ketose = Carbohydrates with _____ group (_____ and _____)

ketone, dehydroxyacetone, fructose

_____ in the open chain form of glucose reacts with the _____ to form a 6 membered _____ ring

C1 aldehyde, C5 hydroxyl group, pyranose

_____ in the open chain form of fructose reacts with the _____ to form a 6 membered _____ ring

C2 keto group, C5 hydroxyl group, furanose

An additional assymetric center is formed at the _____ _____ atom (_____ in the aldoses and _____ in ketoses)

anomeric carbon, C1, C2

Sugars are jointed to alcohols and amines by _____ _____ at the _____ _____

glycosidic bonds, anomeric carbon

What are the three common disaccharides?

Sucrose, lactose, and maltose

Sucrose (aka _____ _____ _____) consists of _____ and _____ joined by a _____ bond

common table sugar, a-glucose, b-fructose, glycosidic

Lactose (in _____) consists of _____ joined to _____ by a _____

milk, galactose, glucose, B-1,4 linkage

Maltose (in _____) consists of two _____ joined by an _____

starch, glucoses, a-1,4 linkage

Most of the glucose units in starch and glycogen are in _____

a-1,4 linkage

Glycogen has more branch points formed by _____ than does starch

a-1,6 linkages

Cellulose, the major _____ polymer of plant cell walls, consists of glucose units joined by _____

structural, B-1,4, linkages

B linkages in cellulose give rise to long, straight chains that form fibrils with high tensile strength. In contrast, the a linkages in _____ and _____ lead to open helices, which allow for roles as _____ _____ _____

starch, glycogen, mobile energy stores

Carbohydrate + Protein = _____

glycoprotein

Glycoproteins are prominent on the _____ _____ on the _____ _____

external surface, plasma membrane

What are specific carbohydrate-binding proteins?

Lectins

What enzymes synthesize oligosaccharides?

Glycosyltransferases

Which monosaccharides differ at a single assymetric carbon atom?

Epimers

Which glycoprotein contains glycosaminoglycans?

Proteoglycan

_____ is a key component of mucoproteins which often serve as _____

N-acetylgalactosamine, lubricants

Why is glucose reactive?

Because of the aldehyde group

Name two reducing sugars

Fructose and glucose, as both sugars have an anomeric carbon that can act as a reducing agent

Why isn't sucrose a reducing sugar?

Sucrose has two anomeric carbons thar are joined by a covalent bond and are thus unreactive.

Each glycogen molecule has one reducing end, whereas the number of nonreducing ends is determined by the number of _____

branches, or a-1,6 linkages. Because the number of nonreducing ends exceeds number of reducing ends, all of the degradationg and synthesis of glycogen takes place at nonreducing ends

Glycogen is a polymer of _____ linked by a _____ bonds with branches formed approximately every _____ glucose units by a _____ bonds

glucose, a-1,4-glycosidic bonds, 10, a-1,6-glycosidic

The _____ linkages of glycogen form a _____ structure, which allows the storage of many glucose moieties in a small place

a-1,4, helical

Amylose is one of the two forms of _____. It is a straight-chain polymer formed by a _____ bond

starch, a-1,4-glycosidic

Amylopectin is one of the two forms of _____ and is similar to _____, but amylopectin has fewer branches, one branch per _____ or so glucose units

starch, glycogen, 30

Cellulose is a linear polymer of _____ joined by _____ linkages.

glucose, B-1,4

Proteoglycans have a _____ attached and play _____ roles.

glycosaminoglycans, structural

A _____, which is a protein that specifically recognizes _____, can also be a glycoprotein. A _____ is a protein that is decorated with _____.

lectin, carbohydrates, glycoprotein, carbohydrates

What is heavily charged and binds with many water molecules?

Glycosaminoglycan