MNGT 360 Exam 2


-Defined as a broad range of feelings that people experience.
-Affect can be experienced in the form of emotions or moods.


-caused by specific event
-very brief in duration (seconds or minutes)
-specific and numerous in nature (many specific emotions such as anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, surprise)
-usually accompanied by distinct facial expressions
-action oriente


-cause is often general and unclear
-last longer than emotions (hours or days)
-more general (two main dimensions-positive affect and negative affect - that are composed of multiple specific emotions)
-generally not indicated by distinct expressions

Organizational Commitment

As an ATTITUDE, organizational commitment is 1) a strong desire to remain a member or a particular organization; 2) willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization; and 3) a definite belief in, and acceptance of, the values and go


strong emotional attachment


sense of obligation to stay


negative consequences of leaving, side-bets

organizational citizenship behavior

individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization
-predispositional traits of being helpful, caring, cooperative,

Organizational Citizenship Behavior Forms

-Altruism (helping out)
-Conscientiousness (staying late to finish a project)
-Civic virtue (volunteering)
-Courtesy (being understanding and empathetic even when provoked

How to increase commitment

1. commit to people-first values
2. clarify and communicate your mission
3. guarantee organizational justice
4. create a sense of community
5. support employee development

Employee engagement

the harnessing of organization members 'selves to their work roles; in engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performance.'

What contributes to employee engagement

-positive or optimistic personalities
-proactive personalities
-variety in work and feedback
-charismatic, positive, and trusting leadership
-few stressors
-career opportunities, recognition, org. reputation, communication

Counterproductive work behavior

-represents behavior that harms other employees, the organization as a whole, or organizational stakeholders such as customers and shareholders.
-particularly negative work outcome
-bullying, theft, backstabbing
-drug or alcohol abuse
-bad or in


process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive


physiological or psychological imbalance, often based on a deficiency


set up to alleviate needs. action-oriented and provide thrust toward reaching an incentive


will satisfy the need and reduce/ cut off the drive.

Primary motives

unlearned, physiological needs that are vital to survival like hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex, maternal concern.

Secondary motives

learned motives, mostly psychological

Needs for achievement

-doing better than competitors
-attaining or surpassing a difficult goal
-solving a complex problem
-carrying out a challenging assignment successfully
-developing a better way to do something

Need for power

-influencing people to change their attitudes or behavior
-controlling people and activities
-being in a position of authority over others
-gaining control over information and resources
-defeating an opponent or enemy

Need for affiliation

-being liked by many people
-being accepted as part of a group or team
-working with people who are friendly and cooperative
-maintaining harmonious relationships and avoiding conflicts
-participating in pleasant social activities

Need for security

-having a secure job
-being protected against loss of income or economic disaster
-having protection against illness and disability
-being protected against physical harm or hazardous conditions
-avoiding tasks or decisions with a risk of failure and blam

need for status

-having the right car and wearing the right clothes
-working for the right company in the right job
-having a degree from the right university
-living in the right neighborhood and belonging to the country club
-having executive privileges

Intrinsic motives

-internally generated that a person associated with the job or task itself. Performing meaningful work is associated with intrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motives

-are tangible and visible to others, distributed by agents. Can be approach-oriented or avoidance-oriented (salary increase, not being laid off)

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

Top: self-actualization
esteem needs
love needs
safety needs
physiological needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs --physiological needs

-the most basic level in the hierarchy. generally corresponds to the UNLEARNED primary needs such as HUNGER, THIRST, SLEEP, SEX.
-according to the theory, once these basic needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.
Ex) a starving person will strive to

Maslow's hierarchy of needs -- Safety needs

this second level of needs is roughly equivalent to the security need. Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. Once safety needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs -- Love needs

this third or intermediate, level of needs loosely corresponds to the affection and affiliation needs. A more appropriate word describing this level could be belongingness or social needs.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs ---Esteem needs

the esteem level represents the higher needs of humans such as the needs for power, achievement, and status. The esteem level contains both self-esteem and esteem from others.

Needs for self-actualization

maslow portrays this level as the culmination of all the lower, intermediate, and higher needs of humans. People who become self-actualized are self-fulfilled and have realized all their potential. In effect, self-actualizaiotn is the person's motivation

Attribution theory

contemporary theory of work motivation where attribution refers to people explain that cause of another's or their own behavior. By the cognitive process people draw conclusions about the factors that influence, or make sense of, one another's behavior.

Dispositional attribution

ascribe a person's behavior to INTERNAL factors such as personality traits, motivation, or ability.

Situational attribution

which attribute a person's behavior to EXTERNAL factors such as equipment or social influence from others.

Attribution theories share the following assumptions

1. we seek to make sense of our world
2. we often attribute people's actions either to internal or external causes.
3. we do so in fairly logical ways.


bad stress
-office politics
-poorly defined priorities, overwhelming work load


good stress
-promotion offered
-high-quality assignment

Tense energy

sense of pressure and anxiety

Calm energy

stress-free, flow "state, low muscle tension, alert presence of mind, peaceful body feelings, increased creative intelligence, deep sense of well-being

Organizational stressors

administrative policies and strategies
-downsizing, competitive pressure.
organizational structure and design
-centralization, formalization, role ambiguity
organizational process
-controls, communication, transparency
working conditions
-noise, heat, art

group stressors

-lack of group cohesiveness
-lack of social support

individual stressors

type A: action-emotion complex that can be observed in a person who is aggressively involved in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more, to learn more and more in less time, and if required to do so, against the opposing efforts of other things or o


-conflicts due to frustration
-goal conflicts
-role conflicts and ambiguity
-interpersonal conflict
-intergroup behavior and conflict

conflicts due to frustration

frustration occurs if a motivated drive is blocked before the goal/incentive is reached.
-barrier might be outward, overt, or inward, covert
-frustration might be productive

approach-approach conflict

two mutually exclusive goals shall be reached

approach-avoidance conflict

individual is motivated towards a goal and is at the same time motivated to avoid it

avoidance-avoidance conflict

individual is motivated to avoid two, mutually exclusive goals

role conflict and ambiguity

role is defined as a position that has expectations evolved from established norms
-everyone has multiple subsequent roles, like child, daughter, college student, girlfriend, spouse, mother, grandmother.
-at the same time, one can have different roles at

Person and role conflict

personality and role expectations do not fit

intrarole conflict

role-inherent norms contradict each other

interrole conflict

two or more roles don't go together

interpersonal conflict

personal differences -disagreements stemming from different backgrounds and values
information deficiency -two parties have different levels of info or both may have misinformation
role incompatibility- two or more roles do not logically fit

intergroup behavior and conflict

competition for resources - between departments, for budget, personnel, office space.
task interdependence - relying on other department's work
jurisdictional ambiguity - diversity issues
status struggles -improving status often threatens other's status

results from stress -psychological

poor job performance, lowered job performance, resentment of supervision, inability to concentrate, dissatisfaction

results from stress- physiological

high blood pressure, heart diseases, burnout, depression

avoiding stress

-make to do lists and prioritize (eisenhower matrix)
-don't feel guilty of those to-dos not accomplished today but make time for them the next day
-be aware of conflicts and put them in perception
-re-fill your resources outside of work (sports, nature, s

individual coping strategies

-behavioral self-control
-cognitive therapy
-network, build social capital

organizational coping strategies

employees assistance programs
-work-family conflict
-support during downsizing

negotiation beyond conflicts

Traditional view: distributive bargaining
Contemporary view: extending the pie
low-risk negotiation skills -flattery, easy point first, silence, poor-me
High-risk negotiation skills
-unexpected temper-loss, high-balling, take-it-or-leave-it

Harvard negotiation project

people: separate people from the project
interests: focus on interests, not positions
options: try to extend the pie and give multiple options
criteria: apply objective criteria.