Skills Lesson: The Elements of Argument

Arguments consist of __________, which are statements that are either true or false.A. logic B. false premises C. sounds D. propositions

D. Propositions

Which type of reasoning is usually based on laws, rules, principles, generalizations, or definitions?A. validB. inductiveC. soundD. deductive

D. deductive

Which type of reasoning is usually based on specific experiences or observations?A. soundB. deductiveC. inductiveD. valid

C. inductive

Every inductive argument is __________.A. based on rules, definitions, and principlesB. a comparison of two sets of events, ideas, and thingsC. either invalid or unsoundD. either valid or sound

B. a comparison of two sets of events, ideas, and things

Every argument should appeal to __________.A. ethos, logos, and pathos B. mainstream beliefs C. fallacious logicD. extreme perspectives

A. ethos, logos, and pathos

How can you tell if an argument is sound?A. It is valid and has true premises.B. It has two premises and a conclusion.C. It has valid reasoning.D. It has effective rhetoric.

A. It is valid and has true premises

Why is it important to be objective and fair when stating the opposition's views?A. The opposition will sue you for slander.B. You might join the opposition one day. C. It builds ethos with the audience. D. It's not important because an insulting tone is best.

C. It builds ethos with the audience.

What does it mean to rebut something?A. to strike with enough force to break an object B. to oppose using evidence or an argument C. to use an aggressive and intimidating tone D. to allow an opponent to win an argument

B. to oppose using evidence or an argument

When should you concede to a counterargument?A. when your audience believes the counterargument B. when it's a controversial subject and you want to avoid hurt feelings C. when you discover that the counterargument is a logical fallacy D. when the counterargument has a relevant point

D. When the counterargument has a relevant point

Which statement is a proposition?A. She set sail on Tuesday. B. Why are you late? C. Good afternoon!D. What happened to my sandwich?

A. She set sail on Tuesday

Which of the following choices is a sound argument?A. Jane Austen is an author. Stephen King is an author. Therefore, I want to be an author.B. All turtles are reptiles. The snake is not a turtle. Therefore, the snake is not a reptile.C. All teachers wear vests. Mr. Gonzales does not wear a vest. Therefore, Mr. Gonzales is not a teacher.D. Immortal human beings live forever. Benjamin Franklin died. Therefore, Benjamin Franklin is immortal.

C. All teacher wear vests. Mr. Gonzales does not wear a vest. Therefore, Mr. Gonzales is not a teacher.

Every argument has a(n) __________.A. fallacy B. supporter C. essay D. counterargument

D. counterargument

How can you tell if an argument is valid?A. Valid arguments are always sound.B. The premises lead logically to the conclusion.C. Valid arguments are never sound.D. There are two premises and a conclusion.

B. The premises lead logically to the conclusion