Genetic Continuity

Genetics

Branch of biology that studies the ways that hereditary information is passed on from parents to offspring

Trait

Name for a characteristic of an organism such as eye color or seed shape

Heredity

Is the passing of genetic information from one generation to the next through reproduction.

Chromosome

The physical structure into which DNA is organized and on which genes are carried.

Gene

Units of hereditary information, contained in the genetic code, sequences of bases in DNA.
An organism receives 2 genes for each trait.

Alleles

Different copies or forms of a gene controlling a certain trait.

Example of alleles

In pea plants gene for height is either T(tall) or t (short) pod color is either Y (yellow) or y (green) (height and pod color are each a trait of pea plants)

Dominate and recessive traits

Dominate trait is the "stronger" trait, that is expressed over the recessive trait.

Homozygous

Alleles for a certain trait in an organism are the same, ex: TT or tt.

Heterozygous

Alleles for a trait are different Ex:Tt Yy

Genotype

The genes (alleles) an organism has for a particular trait.

Phenotype

The visible traits of an organism, such as tall or short in pea plants.

DNA Structure

DNA is made up of smaller subunits called nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three chemical parts: a sugar, a phosphate, and a base. Nucleotides vary from one another according to the kind of bases they contain.

A
T
C
G

Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine A-T and C-G
Guanine

A DNA molecule consists of two strands of _____ bonded together by the bases of each strand.

nucleotides

The _____ form the rungs of the twisted ladder.

base pairs

produces two identical copies of the cell's genetic information (DNA),each ready to be passed from the parent cell to two offspring cells during cell division

DNA replication

DNA strands separate at the weak bonds between bases, each single strand becomes a ______ for a new molecule.

template

The new molecule is built by?

Attaching new subunits to each template strand (A to T and C to G)