CLS 121 - Exam 2

Symposium

An all male social event that usually involves lots of drinking. Popular in the Archaic through the Roman period. Socially constructed drinking party (it's a big deal). Displays the most elegant pottery. Usually only held by the highest in society. Privat

Potnia theron

-"Mistress of animals."
-Associated with Artemis.

Arkteia

Dance performed at the sanctuary of Artemis at Brauron.

Sacred Way

At Delphi, the main path to the temple.

Omphalos

Navel," egg-shaped stone marking Delphi as the center of the earth.

Pythia

Prophetess (sibyl) of Apollo at Delphi, Pythian. Epithet of Apollo.

Sibyl

-Cumaean Sibyl (Sibyl of Cumae).
-Prophetic priestess of Apollo.
-Aeneas' guide in the Underworld.

Caduceus

Held by Hermes. Represents commerce. Two snakes around a single pole with wings at the top.

Liminal

Spaces between one world and another world.

Lyre

Guitar-like instrument that Hermes built when he was a child.

Herm

-Statues used to mark borders.
-Wards off evil spirits and brings good luck. Phallic pillars.

Kantharos

Two-handed cup held by Dionysus.

Thyrsus

Staff with bush at top held by Dionysus. Pole, wreathed with ivy or vine leaves with a pine cone atop its sharpened tip, and used in Bacchic rituals for miracles and murders.

Maenad

Female followers of Dionysus, usually possessed by their god. Wear dresses and wreathes on their head.

Satyr

Male spirits of nature. Part man, part goat. Follow Dionysus. Turned-up nose, often erect.

Thiasos

Ecstatic dance associated with spotted felines and Dionysus.

Bacchae

-A play by Euripides.
-The god Dionysus arrives in Greece from Asia intending to introduce his orgiastic worship there. He is disguised as a charismatic young Asian holy man and is accompanied by his women votaries, who make up the play's chorus. He expec

Lesser Mysteries

Name given to the initial rites, celebrated at Eleusis. The person would have to sacrifice a piglet and bathe them self in near a river.

Greater Mysteries

Name given to the most important rites celebrated at Eleusis by the initiates.

Niinion Pinax

...

Erebus

The darkness of Tartarus or Tartarus itself.

Aeneid

Last story in the Trojan War that describes the fall of Troy. Aeneas' journey to Italy. Describes the Trojan horse. 1st century BC.

Epic Poetry

Poetry that is sung and told while traveling.

Odyssey

3rd book in the story of the Trojan War. 8th century BC. Post war. Odysseus' wandering home to Ithica to regain the city.

Iliad

2nd book in the story of the Trojan War. 8th century BC. The defeat of the Trojans, but not the final end. Achilles' rage.

Cypria

1st book in the story of the Trojan War. This book is actually lose. 8th century BC. Lead up to the war.

Syncretism

Growing together," harmonizing of different myths, cults, and deities.

Taurobolium

Baptism by bull's blood. Sacrificial cow. Stood in a put under a bull and its blood poured down. Blood symbolized the washing away of one life and the beginning of a new one How you were initiated into the cult.

Cabiri

The oldest of the Greek mystery cults. Centered on Samothrace (island) and Pergamum (Ionia). Offered protection to seafarers.

Tauroctony

Sacrificial killing of a bull. Always have the sun god looking upon, a flowing cape, crab pinching the bull's testicles, a snake biting the bull, and the bull being stabbed. The man is usually looking away from the bull.

1200 BC

Bronze age ends. No more Linear B. Trojan war. Lots of destruction.

800 BC

Archaic period. Homer lives now.

480 BC

Sack of Athens. Persian wars.

428-348 BC

When Plato lived.

630-570 BC

When Sappho lived.

480-406 BC

When Euripides lived.

Celestial Aphrodite

-Birthed form Ouranos.
-Spiritual, god-like, powerful.
-Older.

Aphrodite Pandemos

-Born from Zeus and Dione.
-More base and devoted primarily to physical satisfaction.

Eros

-Associated with love.
-Playful, trickster.
-Youthful, with bow and arrow, and wings.
-Dual [births] = Primeval god (Hesiod) and child of Aphrodite and Ares (love and war coming together).

Plato

-Lived from 428-348 BC
-Athens is where he founded the Academy.
-His teacher was Socrates (and everything we know about Socrates comes from this person).
-His student was Aristotle (who wrote political works).
-He wrote 35 dialogues and 13 letters (Epistl

Aristophanes

-He has a speech in The Symposium that describes the three original sexes (man and woman, male and male, and female and female).
-Zeus was trying to punish people for the nature of desire.
-He explains that happiness lies in the fulfillment of love and ea

Socrates

-Everything we know about this person comes from Plato.
-Describes the story of Eros and how he is living/growing with one person at one time, but dying/dead with another person. As one relationship begins, another dies.
-This person says that physical lo

Sappho

-Lived from 630/612-570 BC.
-Lived on the island of Lesbos.
-Most of her poetry is lost, but she was held in great esteem by alter poets.
-She loved women and her poems are about loving other women.
-More well-known poem: Sappho Poem 1. A prayer to Aphrod

Artemis

-Born from Zeus and Leto.
-Brother is Apollo.
-Virginal, huntress, young girl, woods, recently married, childbirth (fertility).
-Attributes: Bow & arrow, animals, moon, controlling animals.
-Eastern "mistress of animals" = Potnia Theron.
-Places: Delos, B

Apollo

-Born from Zeus and Leto.
-Sister is Artemis.
-Epithets: Far-shooter, far-darter, Pythian (Delphi), Delian (Delos), and Phoebus (taking over roles of the sun).
-Apolline sayings: "know thyself" and "nothing in excess"
-Characteristics: Intelligent, ration

Pythian

-One of the epithets of Apollo.
-From Delphi.

Phoebus

-One of the epithets of Apollo.
-Meaning "bright"
-Taking over the roles of the sun.

Niobe

-Story of Apollo and Artemis.
-She is a queen in Thebes.
-Has 7 daughters and 7 sons.
-She things that she should be honored, and not Leto.
-Apollo and Artemis find this out and kill all 14 kids.
-"Don't think you're better than the gods. Don't be too pro

Actaeon

-Story with Artemis and her.
-Artemis sees her naked.
-Artemis turns her into a deer.
-Hounds then eat the deer.

Euripides

-Lived from 480-406 BC.
-Born on the day the Athenians beat the Persians.
-Lived in Athens.
-Author of Hippolytus.
-Wrote many other plays.

Hippolytus

-Someone's name and also the title of a play.
-He is a follower of Artemis.
-He refused to worship Aphrodite (bad idea).
-Aphrodite then made his mother, Phaedra, fall in love with him.
-He is disgusted and causes Phaedra to kill herself.
-Theseus banishe

Phaedra

-"Bright"
-Daughter of Minos.
-Wife of Theseus.
-Stepmother of Hippolytus (with whom she falls in love).

Daphne

-One of Apollo's lovers.
-She rejected Apollo and was turned into his sacred laurel tree.

Cyrene

-Loved by Apollo.
-Mother of Aristaeus.
-Eponymous ancestor of the city Cyrene in Libya.

Hyacinthus

-Spartan youth.
-Loved and accidentally killed by Apollo.

Marpessa

-Evenus' daughter who preferred Idas to Apollo.

Asclepius

-Son of Apollo and Coronis.
-God of medicine.
-Held a staff with a single snake wrapped around it.

Chiron

-A wise centaur.
-Tutor of heros.

Marsyas

-Satyr who took Athena's flute and, losing in a contest with Apollo, was skinned alive and turned into a river.
-"Don't challenge Apollo to a music contest.

Hermes

-Born from Zeus and Maia.
-Sometimes winged, winged boots, caduceus/kerykeion.
-Clever, tricky, liminal.
-Travelers, luck, heralds, thieves, commerce.
-Stole Apollo's cattle.
-Created the Lyre.

Hermaphroditus

-Hermaphrodite.
-Son of Hermes and Aphrodite.
-He became one with Salmacis (nymph of a fountain at Halicarnassus) and turned into a hermaphrodite.

Dionysus

-AKA Bacchus.
-Vines, kantharos (two-handed cup), thyrsus (staff with bush at top).
-Accompanies by maenads and satyrs.
-Wine, fertility, drama, irrationality, and transformation.
-Many births.

Semele

-Birthed a mortal Dionysus with Zeus.
-Loved by Zeus and destroyed by his lightning and fire. Zeus saved the unborn child, Dionysus by sewing him into his thigh.

Persephone

-Goddess of the budding grain.
-Detemer's daughter.
-Abducted by Hades to be his wife.

Pan

-Similar to satyrs in appearance and character.
-Part goat: Head and legs.
-Usually erect and pursuing someone.
-Invented the panpipe.
-Lives in the hills and mountains.
-Lost a contest with Apollo.

Echo

-Nymph who became only a voice.
-She was pursued by Pan and rejected Narcissus.

Narcissus

-Rejected the love of many (including Echo).
-Died of unrequited love for his own reflection.
-Was turned into a flower.

Demeter

-Daughter of Cronus and Rhea.
-Goddess of the ripe grain, vegetation, agriculture, and the Eleusinian mysteries.
-Fertility goddess.
-Associated with grain, torch, and matronly.
-Persephone's mother.
-Places: Eleusis, Corinth, Sicily.

Kore

-"Girl"
-Another name for Persephone.

Hades

-Son of Kronos and Rhea.
-God of the underworld.
-Married to Persephone.
-Difficult to distinguish from Zeus and Poseidon.
-Rides a chariot.

Triptolemus

-Demeter's messenger.
-Prince in Eleusis.

Homer

-Lived around 800 BC.
-From Ionia.
-Traveling poet; sung.
-Iliad and Odyssey.
-Most famous and well-known of all.
-In ancient lists of the best poets, he is always first.
-Earliest written versions around 6th century BC.

Odysseus

-Hero in the Trojan war.
-His journey home to regain his kingdom in Ithaca.

Tantalus

-He was punished in the underworld by being tantalized by water and fruit just beyond his reach.

Sisyphus

-Outwitted Death.
-For telling Zeus' secret, was punished in the Underworld by rolling a huge stone up a hill forever.
-He was reputed by some to be father of Odysseus.

Er

-Son of Armenius.
-Died and came back to life to present the vision o the Afterlife recored by Plato.

Vergil

-From Mantua (northern Italy).
-"Swan of Mantua"
-Lived from 70 BC - 19 BC
-Wrote an epic poem that glorified the past, present, and future of Rome.
-Wrote 12 books of epic poetry that was similar to the Iliad the the Odyssey.
-Books 1-6:: Aeneas wanderin

Aeneas

-Trojan warrior.
-Son of Aphrodite and Anchises.
-Hero of Virgil's Aeneid.
-Visits the Sibyl who will be his guide.
-Two tasks that he must do before he enters the underworld: 1. Burial of Minenus and 2. Find the Golden Bough.

Misenus

-Comrade of Aeneas, who performs his funeral rites.

Anchises

-A Trojan prince.
-Seduced by Aphrodite.
-Father of Aeneas.

Marcellus

An important figure seen by Aeneas in the Underworld.

Augustus

The emperor of Rome.

Charon

-The ferryman of the Underworld.

Cerberus

-The hound of Hades.

Minos

-Judge in the Underworld.

Orpheus

-From Thrace.
-He wooed and won Eurydice by the charm of his music.
-He went to Hades to bring her back when she died, but he looked back at her when almost to the surface and she was sucked back to the Underworld.
-Member of Jason's expedition with Argon

Eurydice

-Orpheus' wife who died from a snake bit.
-Orpheus, by his music, won her return from Hades but lost her again when he looked back too soon.

Cybele

-Phrygian mother goddess.
-Sprung from earth.
-Loved Attis and with him was associated with a mystery religion called Magna Matter.

Mithras

-From Persia.
-God of light and truth.
-Worship in a Mithraeum (cult places of worship. 3 isled building with one central isle. Sort of like an underground chapel.)
-Spread by the army and merchants.
-Only men could be initiates.
-High level of self-disci

Isis

-From Egypt.
-Goddess of mysteries.
-Wife of Osiris and mother of Horus.
-Sistrum: A musical instrument.
-Situla: A breast shaped container for milk.
-Jug for holy water from the Nile syncretism of goddesses.
-Often seen nursing Horus.
-Can look like the

Pentheus

-"Sorrow"
-King of Thebes who opposes Dionysus
-Killed by his mother Agave.

Agave

-Daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia.
-Mother of Pentheus.

Zagreus

-Another name for Dionysus as god of the mysteries.

Musaeus

-Student/son of Orpheus that assumed many of his characteristics.
-Said to be struck down by Zeus before he was killed by countrymen not accepting his teaching.

Phanes

-Epithet of Eros.

Chronus

-"Time"
-The first principe in the Orphic theogony.

Serapis

-Egyptian god linked to Isis.

Osiris

-Husband and brother o the Egyptian goddess Isis.
-Connected to the Underworld.
-First mummy.

Delos

-Island in the Aegean sea.
-Birthplace of Apollo and Artemis.
-Sanctuary of Apollo, Delian.

Brauron

-Sanctuary of Artemis is located here.

Ephesus

-Another sanctuary of Artemis is located here.
-Very large.
-Has the statue of Artemis with many breasts and animals on the bottom half. Also has a wall of a city as a hat.

Delphi

-Panhellenic sanctuary of Apollo located here.
-Center for games and contests and his oracle, Delphic.

Treasury of Athenians

-Located in Delphi.
-The metopes have the Labors of Herakles and Theseus.

Treasury of Siphnians

-Located in Delphi.
-The Frieze has the Gigantomachy.
-The pediment has the dispute of Apollo and Herakles.

Cumae

-Greek city in Italy founded in 8th century BC.
-The Cumaen Sibyls were located here (prophetic priestess of Apollo and Aeneas' guide in the Underworld).

Nysa

Name of the nymphs that raised Dionysus (also part of his name).

Theater of Dionysus

A large theater in Athens were all the tragedies we read were first performed.

Eleusis

-A town west of Athens.
-Center for the mysteries of Demeter.

Telesterion

Main cult building at Eleusis.

Tartarus

-Described by Vergil.
-Neutral zone for people who had an untimely death.
-Field of Mourning where victims of unrequited love and warriors killed in battle stayed.
-Values: Devotion to humanity, state, family, and gods.

Elysium

-The Elysian Fields.
-Paradise in the realm of Hades.

Styx

-River of "Hate" in the Underworld.

Lethe

-River of "Forgetfulness" in the Underworld.