???? ?????? Vocabulary

Alexander II

Came into power from 1855-1881, around the time that there was economic pressure in Russia and social unrest was growing.


The person who had rule over a country or territory, mainly used in Russia. They possessed complete authority over the area that they ruled.


The poor peasant farmers who worked on the land that was owned by rich elites. They created the majority of the unstable population in Russia.


A legal and economic system. A serf is a worker who has to stay in one area. Serfs were the lowest social class of the feudal society. Serfs were different from slaves. Serfs could have property.

Crimean War

The Crimean War (October 1853 - February 1856) was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.


Many of the poor serfs were emancipated and the restrictions in Russia were lowered such as the freedom of speech and press.

Reasons For Emancipation

Gave the peasants more freedoms such as freedom to farm on their own land and they no longer have to pay the state taxes on land.

Reasons Against Emancipation

Nobles couldn't adjust to not owning the serfs ans new circumstances.
The nobles weren't ready to change their life of comfort into hard labor
The peasants had no good land to farm on
They had a lower income
The peasants now paid the nobles and this took

Military Reforms

Tsar Alexander II and III and Nicolas all focused on industrialization, and significantly increased the amount of military production, this provided many jobs for peasants in the city.

Legal Reforms

Under Tsar Alexander II, Russia had gained a new judicial system, complete with courts and juries for fair trials. Also the abolishment of serfdom, now peasants could own their own land rather than reporting to nobles or higher land owners. These reforms

Cultural Reforms

Russification, Tsar Alexander III employed the assimilation of all minority cultures after his father was assassinated. Poles, Armenians, Jews, Muslims, etc. all were required to adopt the Russian culture.

Educational Reforms

Reforms now allowed poor peasants to attend school, so the majority class now became more middle class.

Local Government Reforms

Created Zemstovs to address any local issues.

Tsar Liberator

Nickname Alexander II was given for his attempts to liberate Russia and help it become more industrialized and caught up to the rest of Europe.


Alexander II created new railroads for better transportation of goods through Russia. This then also had more mills made to supply the demand of steel that was needed. This resulted in a great increase of grain exports, which allowed for Russia to become


People who did not see any compromise with the government and wanted only to overthrow it. They opposed industrialism and capitalism. They wanted to maintain the Russian social groups from the past.

Spread of Opposition

Many people supported industrialization and the freedom that Alexander II employed during his reign, but other people, known as populists, opposed these ideas claiming that industrialization went against the common culture. As their ideas became ignored t

The People's Will

An underground violence group that had opposed Alexander II and had attempted to kill him. They achieved the goal in 1881.

Alexander III

This was the son of Alexander II and had sought to make drastic changes and reforms that counteracted his fathers.


A form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. This was one of the reforms that was created during Russia to make it more unified.


A system of government by one person with absolute power.

Cultural and Social Reforms

Russification, mentioned above

Noble Influence

Nobles owned large portions of land, and employed peasants to care for these lands. Being the upper class they had almost supreme power over many people of the working class and forced the to live in huts and barns with the farm animals.


Answered above


Much of Russia was Eastern Orthodox and enforced assimilation of other cultures into this Russian culture. Rasputin, on the board of Tsar Nicolas was often criticized for his lazy tactics and extreme corruption.

Land Captains

Nobel's that were recruited by the government that were given many powers over the peasants and other groups. They were also called "little Tsars".

Famine of 1891

This was when there was a disease and famine at the same time hitting Russia, which killed 68 million of the population. The government attempted to cover this up by calling it a bad harvest season, and this resulted with them encouraging grain exports.

Karl Marx

He opposed capitalist system and industrialization in Russia. He had implemented his own system and this was liked because he explained it in a systematical way.


The capital of Russia became known as Petrograd, after St. Petersberg was too German.


The type of government system that was implemented by Karl Marx.


The term referred to by Marx as the intellectuals that knew they must implement Marxism and that they would have to rally together.

Nicholas II

Tsar of Russia from 1894 to 1917. His opposition to change led to the Revolution of 1905 and eventually to the Russian Revolution of 1917, in which he was forced to abdicate the throne.


Many of the cities in Russia were filled by people who were looking for job that were created by industrialization. This then filled many of the cities and created a very large population.


During this time of urbanization the government implemented new systems that brought more money in Russia and this then allowed for it to reinvest the money back into industrialization and create more factories.


Were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister). Most, if not, all of these reforms were based on recommendations from a committee know

Social Unrest

Many peasant groups had began to for illegally along with in the work place. These groups then protested the government and the working conditions that they were put in. These then were up scaled and turned into riots.

Socialist Revolutionary Party

The most radical group. Responsible for the assassination of Alexander II, along with the entire populist movement.

Land and Liberty

The SR's slogan. This was to show the that intellectual leader were campaigning for the peasants who couldn't fight for themselves.

Social Democratic Party

This group believed that as Russia industrialized more that it should focus on the working class and not the peasants. They also saw that Russia had more fertile soil for capitalist government.

Vladimir Lenin

Came to power in 1902 and was a very serious SD. He believed that a successful revolution was based off of revolutionary intellects building a stronger working class.

Bolsheviks (Majority-ites)

A member of the majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Party, which was renamed the Communist Party after seizing power in the October Revolution of 1917.

Mensheviks (Minority-ites)

A member of the non-Leninist wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party, opposed to the Bolsheviks and defeated by them after the overthrow of the Tsar in 1917.

Trans-Siberian Railroad

This was a railroad that had brought Japan and Russia into a conflict over their ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

Russo-Japanese War

This war took place from 1904-1905 due to the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Tsar Nicholas II thought it would be an easy war to go into. This proved to be disastrous. The army had poorly supplied men and weaponry.

1905 Revolution

On January 9, 1905 in St. Petersburg, 150,000 workers, wives and children peacefully marched to the tsar's winter palace to bring economic grievance. This ended in a mass killing of the people.

Bloody Sunday

This was what the massacre of people was called. 200 people were killed and 800 were wounded. This altered the peoples view of the Tsar.

Winter Palace

The Imperial residence of the Russian Tsar.

St. Petersburg

Renamed Petrograd when it was considered a German name.

Soviet Strike

The major strike in Russia that was one of the large starters of the revolution. It was a major strike where many factory workers refused to work.

Leon Trotsky

One of the workers council members in Russia. He led the strike and was a Menshevik.

Sergei Witte

A highly influential Russian policy-maker. He was a witness of the abolition of serfdom and the first Russian revolution. A supporter of Emperor Alexander III, he was highly influential during the reign of Nicholas II.

October Manifesto

A list of many recommended reforms that were presented to the Tsar during October.


Favored evolutionary changes towards a more Western Europe system of government. There were two main liberal parties, the Octobrists and the Constitutional Democrats.


Concentrated on political reforms and the introduction of civil rights and universal suffrage.


Named after the October Manifesto, they opposed universal suffrage.


There were two major parties: Social Democrats and Social Revolutionaries. They favored a revolutionary remaking of Russian society.


Favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change; traditional or restrained in style.

Union of the Russion People

A conservative group that formed in October to mobilize pro-tsarist sentiment.

Black Hundreds

This was formed by the Union of the Russian People. This group paraded through the streets displaying banners, crosses, and portraits of the tsar, while concealing brass knuckles and knives.

Nicholas's response to revolution

The Tsar had made attempts to stop the revolution. In early December the government shut down the St. Petersburg Soviet and arrested its leaders.


This was the legislative body created by the Tsar so that the people would be able to have a say in the government while the Tsar could still closely control what was going on.

Grigori Rasputin

Siberian peasant monk who was very influential at the court of Tsar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra.

Petr Stolypin

Russian conservative statesman: prime minister (1906-11). He instituted agrarian reforms but was ruthless in suppressing rebellion: assassinated

Stolypin's Necktie

The hangman's noose for when they were executed.

Stolypin Carriages

The railroad cars used to transport the political prisoners to Siberia

Reforms Under Stolypin

Peasants were able to separate from the commune and setup private farms.
Gave peasants the right to homestead in Western Siberia where agricultural was possible.

Stolypin's End

The Duma disliked Stolypin and refused to work with him. When the Duma was dissolved he made voting laws more strict and favored the wealthy land owners. During an Opera he was assassinated on September 1911.

Union of Russian People

This was a bloc that wanted to restore the Russian social order. They had become more known as the violence towards the Jews and those who suspected of harboring Jews.

Economic Issues Between 1910-1014

The Ministry of finances negotiated many large loans from Western European banks so as not to be dependent on appropriations from the new Duma. The economic situation caused many peasant disturbances between 1910-1914.

WWI's Impact on Russia

Russia was very volatile at the time and WWI put it on the edge of disaster. Along with this, the ethnic tensions were growing within Russia.

1917 February/March Revolution

Extremely cold weather in addition to civil unrest lead to a giant revolution almost as big as the revolution Pre-WWI. Lead to a new Dual Authority and the resignation of the Tsar.

International Women's Day 1917

Many women in the textile factories gathered to vent about the shortages on food and the labor hours. They then went around to other factories and gathered more women to protest and march around the city.

Tsar's Abdication

After the Tsar resigned, the Russians felt a sense of euphoria and experienced absolute freedom. Also, many viewed the revolution as a great moral rebirth of the Russian people.

Provisional Government

Met in the right wing of the Tauride Palace. They had self elected provisional government, workers and soldiers voted in elections for Representatives to a new government.


They were part of the council that had the ability to overrule any military order. They then received the soldiers' allegiance.

Dual Authority

Russia was ruled by more than one power other than the Tsar.