Chapter 14

mental disorder

a persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that causes significant distress or impairment

medical model

abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses, have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures

diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)

a classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems

comorbidity

the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual

biopsychosocial perspective

explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological, and social factors

diathesis-stress model

suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress

research domain criteria project (RDoC)

a new initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them

the conception of psychological disorders as diseases that have symptoms and possible cures is referred to as

the medical model

the DSM-5 is best described as a

classification system

comorbidity of disorders refers to

the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual

the RDoC aims to

shift researchers from focusing on a symptom-based classification of mental disorders to a focus on underlying processes that may lead to mental disorders

anxiety disorder

the class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature

phobic disorders

disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations

specific phobia

a disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individuals' ability to function

social phobia

a disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publically humiliated or embarrassed

preparedness theory

the idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears

panic disorder

a disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror

agoraphobia

a specific phobia involving a fear of public places

generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

a disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance

irrational worries and fears that undermine one's ability to function normally are an indication of

an anxiety disorder

a(n) _____ disorder involves anxiety tied to a specific object or situation

phobic

agoraphobia often develops as a result of

panic disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

a disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning

Kelly's fear of germs leads her to wash her hands repeatedly throughout the day, often for a half hour or more, under extreme hot water. from which disorder does Kelly likely suffer?

obsessive-compulsive disorder

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

a disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic even to mind

which is not a symptom of PTSD?
chronic physiological arousal
avoidance of things or places that might serve as reminders of the traumatic event
recurrent, intrusive thoughts about the traumatic event
impaired acquisition of conditioned fear responses

impaired acquisition of conditioned fear responses

mood disorders

mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature

major depressive disorder (unipolar depression)

a disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbance

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern

helplessness theory

the idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their own fault), stable (unlikely to change), and global (widespread)

bipolar disorder

a condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)

expressed emotion

a measure if how much hostility, criticism, and emotional over involvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder

major depression is characterized by a severely depressed mood that lasts at least

2 weeks

extreme mood swings between _____ characterize bipolar disorder

depression and mania

schizophrenia

a psychotic disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior

positive symptoms

thoughts and behaviors present in schizophrenia but not seen in those without the disorder, such as delusions and hallucinations

hallucinations

false perceptual experiences that have a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation

delusions

patently false beliefs, often bizarre and grandiose, that are maintained in spite of their irrationality

disorganized speech

a severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently among unrelated topics

grossly disorganized behavior

behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances

catatonic behavior

a marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and over activity

negative symptoms

deficits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors

cognitive symptoms

deficits in cognitive abilities, specifically in executive functioning, attention, and working memory

dopamine hypothesis

the idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity

schizophrenia is characterized by?

hallucinations, disorganized thoughts and behavior, and emotional and social withdrawal

schizophrenia affects approximately ______% of the population and accounts for approximately ______% of admissions to state and county mental hospitals

1, 40

autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

a condition begging in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

a persistent pattern of sever problems with inattention and/or hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause significant impairments in functioning

autism spectrum disorder is characterized by?

communication deficits and restricted, repetitive behavior

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

sometimes persists into adulthood

conduct disorder

a persistent pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression against people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious rule violations

which is not a symptom of conduct disorder?
aggression toward people or animals
property destruction
childhood adversities
stealing from others

childhood adversities

personality disorders

enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that deviate from cultural expectations and cause distress or impaired functioning

antisocial personality disorder (APD)

a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood

which is a common feature of a personality disorder?
failure to take other people's perspectives
excessive fear of rejection
unstable moods
overly dramatic attempts at attention seeking

failure to take other people's perspectives

Jim was diagnosed as having antisocial personality disorder based on the fact that he

is manipulative, impulsive, and coldhearted, showing little emotional empathy

suicide

intentional self-inflicted death

suicide attempt

self-inflicted injury from which a person has at least some intention of dying

nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI)

direct, deliberate destruction of body tissue in the absence of any intent to die

in the united states, those at highest risk for suicide are

men, white people, those with a mental disorder

nonsuicidal self-injury occurs among _____% of adolescents

15-20