Psychology of Counseling Midterm

Define "field therapy

Everything is relational and in constant flux, meaning things are constantly changing in life

What group is Gestalt Therapy associated with?

Existential therapies

What is the concept of the experiment in Gestalt therapy?

Crafted to fit the client's unique needs and address their own unique problem; Heighten the client's awareness and understanding through experience

Name and describe a technique in Gestalt therapy.

Confrontation: invites the client to examine their own behaviors and attitudes and own ways of doing life

What is the premise of Gestalt therapy?

People must be understood in context of their ongoing present relationships and their environment

Purpose of Gestalt therapy techniques

Help client be aware of the present or here and now; intensify feelings and experiences


being able to mirror the client's emotional experience of a particular situation

What is the person-centered view of human nature?

If a person had the right conditions, the client could propel themselves forward and develop as they wanted

What are the 3 attributes that describe a person-centered therapist?

1) Congruence (combo of genuineness and realness);
2) Unconditional positive regard (accept and care for others);
3) Accurate empathetic understanding (grasp of personal world of client)

Unconditional Positive Regard

Empathetic identification with the client and caring without judgment; acceptance

Technique of reflection

Being able to mirror the client's emotional experience of a particular situation

What is the limitation of person-centered therapy?

Positions the therapist to be too supportive and too caring

Internal source of evaluation

Look at self for answers and be able to self-assess

What was Rogers' position on confronting the client?

Caring confrontations can be beneficial

Person-centered therapy is a ___ approach.


Describe person-centered therapy

Focuses on client-therapist relationship

Name the persons associated with the existential movement

Viktor Frankl, Irvin Yalom, Rolo May

Victor Frankl

Love and suffering go together
We find salvation through love
Logo Therapy: you do therapy for meaning/ heal people find meaning in life
We have choices everyday

Rollo May

Focus on concepts of power, accepting responsibility and freedom, and discover identity
Therapy should help people discover meaning of their lives

Irvan Yalom

Addressed the given of human existence:
1. Freedom of responsibility
2. Existential isolation
3. Meaninglessness
4. Death
focus on here and now
Group dynamics

Basic goal of existential psychotherapy

Help clients move toward authenticity

Finding the courage to be involves ___.

finding identity/choices determine the kind of person we will become

What are the 3 types of anxiety under existential therapy?

Existential, normal, and neurotic

Existential anxiety

the unavoidable result of being confronted with the givens of existence

Normal anxiety

appropriate response to an event being faced

Neurotic anxiety

anxiety about concrete things that is out of proportion to the situation

What is the central issue in existential therapy?

Commitment to choose and be authentic; freedom and responsibility
not well defined techniques

What is the role of death in existential therapy?

Understanding death helps to lead a full life; death is not negative

What is the existential philosophy of therapy?

Finding balance between recognizing the limits and tragedies of human existence (philosophy!) balanced with possibilities and opportunities
people are always in the process of becoming

What was Viktor Frankel's approach in existential therapy?

Logotherapy - designed to help people find meaning and purpose

What was Adler's belief about human behavior?

How the individual interprets early events continues to influence their behavior in the present
We are motivated by social urges and that our behavior should be purposeful and goal directed

Adlerian client/therapist relationship.

Mutual trust, equals, cooperation, two people working toward goals

What are the reasons to examine the family constellation in Adlerian therapy?

Has central impact on an individual's personality;
Important to examine birth order, parental relationships, family values

Social interest

the action line of one's community feeling (being concerned about others as one is about oneself)
empathy towards and with others
empathy is caring for someone like you care for yourself

Inferiority feelings

Normal condition of all people;
source of all human striving;
Motivate us to strive for mastery, success, and completion
sign of creativity

Fictional finalism (Adler)

An imagined life goal that guides a person's behavior

Adler's concept of individuality

Understanding the whole person and the things in their personal life
unique way that we write our own script
focus on unity of the person, person becoming complete

Life tasks to be mastered under Adlerian therapy

Building friendships (social task);
Establishing intimacy (love-marriage task; connection with others)
Contributing to society (occupational task)

Premise of Adlerian group work

Our problems are mainly of a social nature;
People can develop a sense of belonging, social connectedness, and community

Function of ego

Reality; Governs, controls, and regulates the personality
does what is logical

Function of superego

Moral code; good or bad/right or wrong
represents the ideals, what we should strive for
judicial branch
Internalizes the standards of parents and society


Unconscious shifting to the therapist of thoughts and memories
means to uncover early unfinished business from past
from the client to the therapist
want this to happen because client trusts you
core of psychoanalytical analysis


When therapist looses objectivity or responds in an irrational way
therapist transfers to the client

Concept of resistance (psychoanalytic)

Anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the client from producing previously unconscious material
1. everything that prevents a client from producing unconscious material can be classified as resistance
2. Resistance needs to be a

Name and describe an ego defense mechanism

Denial: Closing one's eyes to the existence of a threatening aspect of reality


a person who manages their anxiety by distorting reality and failing to acknowledge painful events


pushing unacceptable life events and painful feelings to the unconscious

Reaction Formation

Unconsciously exhibits overly nice behavior to conceal hostility


Attributing to others, ones own unexcitable desires, traits, and qualities


Kind of our way of making something okay
Often do this to not accept responsibility


Someone is reverting to less mature stages of development

Name the basic goals of psychoanalytic therapy

Making the unconscious conscious;
to increase adaptive functioning by reducing symptoms and resolving conflicts

Name the 6 basic techniques of psychoanalytic therapy.

Maintaining the analytic framework,
free association,
dream analysis,
analysis of resistance,
and analysis of transference

Maintaining the analytic framework

Analysis was the goal and primary technique in psychoanalysis;
framework refers to the overall process

Free association

clients are encouraged to say whatever comes to mind;
unveils blocked feelings


The analyst points out, explains, and teaches the client the meanings of behavior that is manifested in dreams, free association, resistances, and the therapeutic relationship itself

Dream analysis

Uncovers unconscious material and gives clients insight into some areas of unresolved problems

Limits to confidentiality

By law, required to report abuse (self or someone else), suicide, murder, etc.

Client's right to be informed

The right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it.

Ethical codes about dual relationships

Counseling professionals must learn to manage multiple roles and responsibilities in an ethical way

When should a helper consult with another therapist or specialist?

If things in her personal life are affecting how well the helper can work with a client

Crucial task in becoming an ethical practitioner

Become aware of our own needs, areas of unfinished business, potential personal problems, and especially our sources of countertransference
put clients needs before your own

Name the 6 characteristics of being an effective counselor.

Genuine and sincere; sense of humor; boundaries; understand self; embrace differences; be aware of own values and accept other's values

Name 3 reasons therapy can help a therapist.

Experience the other side (what works and what doesn't);
Enhance therapist's interpersonal skills;
Help deal with ongoing stress of counseling

Role of counselor's personal values in counseling.

Be objective;
find answers that are most congruent with the client's values
influences how we view counseling and manner in how we interact with clients

Guidelines for working with culturally diverse client populations

Educate self on other cultures
Identify own assumptions;
Remain open to ongoing learning;
Be flexible in applying the methods you use

List 6-8 of Stan's problems.

Doesn't feel wanted by his family;
Struggled with friendships;
Afraid of failure;
Drinks too much when feeling alone;
Fear of women;
Anxiety and fear of dying

What makes psychotherapy effective?

Leads to fewer relapses of anxiety and mild to moderate depression than medication use alone

What do action-oriented therapies do?

Translate insights and ideas into actions/ behaviors
called cognitive behavioral approaches

Name the 4 types of action-oriented therapies.

Cognitive behavior therapy,
behavior therapy,
rational emotive behavior therapy,
reality therapy

List the 3 types of humanistic/experiential therapies.

Existential therapy,
person-centered therapy,
Gestalt therapy

What is the focus of humanistic/experiential therapies?

Therapist-client relationship;

Name a strength and weakness of psychoanalytic therapy.

Strength: Relative to a variety of cultures;
Weakness: Thought of to be an upper class type therapy

Freud wanted to help clients aquires what 3 things?

Love, work, and play

What is important in psychoanalytic therapy?

Therapist/client relationship was based on mutual respect; Collarboration and working together toward a main goal

Adler believed that people are not motived so much by sexual urges but more so by ___.

Social relatedness

Adler believed therapists should assist the client in what three areas?

Understanding, challenging, and changing their life story


First used by freud
sexual energy that drives us

Centered therapy: ________ is most important


4 goals of existential therapy

1. Expand self awareness
2. Increase choice potential
3.Help client accept responsibility of choosing
4.Help the client experience authentic existence

Perception= Reality


On repetitive behavior... what purpose does it serve for a client to continue a specific behavior, thought, or pattern?


Irvin Yalon: The instillation of hope


If you begin to believe that you belong on the pedestal that people/clients will place you on, then it's time to find another profession. You may cause harm to him or her


Insight + Behavior = Change


Carl Rodgers

Centered Therapy
Used personality in counseling setting
Humanist psychology
Open to change and questioning
Client relationship needs to grow and change
Person centered therapy


Gestalt Therapy
have to look at the whole picture to solve problem

Benefits of Gastalt Therapy

Increase awareness
client responsibility

Attitude of therapist is more important than intelligence

Centered therapy