Biology and Society: Midterm 1

Raymond Goslin

?student under Rosalind Franklin
?took the x-ray diffraction that led to the discovery of the double helix, not Rosalind Franklin
?shows an "the invisible player" removed in the writing of history
?shows different versions of discovery stories

Tobacco Mosaic Virus

?after the discover of DNA, Franklin, Watson, and Crick worked together on TMV structure
?doesn't make sense with discovery narrative that Watson and Crick stole DNA idea from Franklin
?shows Franklin had bold theories - differs from DNA discovery narrati

RNA Tie Club

?Watson and Crick were members
?1950s - scientists thought RNA or protein carried hereditary information
?institutional support and research labs did not focus on DNA - at the time, discovery didn't seem important
?present day importance of DNA led us to

Localized & Distributed Modes

?localized - short period of time, few main characters and their relationships, focuses on ideas - Mullis' discover of PCR, car/cabin, experiment on own time, skepticism of colleagues, received Nobel Peace Prize
?distributed - long period of time, variety

Mr. Cycle

?technique vital to PCR, reproduction of specific DNA sequence
?talked about in Rabinow's distributed mode - led to controversy of credit and showed how localized mode leaves out important information

Gene Gun

?early 1980s
?implementing genes into crop plants
?localized mode - technology transfer office director, tells of Sanford having aha moment shooting squirrels in his backyard
?distributed mode - John Sanford, conversation with Edward Wolf over time, multi

The Physicists' War

?WW2, new way of thinking about research
?manhattan project, atom bomb, physicists advocated and worked on this project
?military and university physicists contributed
?also built infrastructure for further nuclear research
?penicillin, government funded

Science: The Endless Frontier

?disagreement on house the government should fund scientific research during peacetime
?Vannevar Bush, 1945, engineer and policy advisor during WW2, advocated for a national research foundation, government hands off, believes basic research (research with

Harley Kilgore

?democratic senator
?advocated for a centralized agency to coordinate research priorities, applied vision, avoid funding to small groups and distribute funds equally

Oppenheimer Security Hearings

?manhattan project scientist, lost clearance because was suspected spy
?displays national security and openness in research, how post WW2 scientists took on a more political role, and dispute over government funding

International Geophysical Year (IGY)

?1957-1958
?period of observational data collection of sun and earth, between 67 nations, all at the same time, widely successful
?led to the international biological program, 1967-1974, 50 nations
?displays how physics was model program and influenced bi

X-10 reactor

?factory built during WW2 to create radioactive isotopes
?post WW2, factory transformed into cancer research center, government involved in distributing isotopes to other research projects
?displays how big physics infrastructure in WW2 played a large rol

Atoms for Peace

?Eisenhower's speech, 1953
?displays government interest in rebranding the image of nuclear science during peacetime
?discusses public fear about the link between radiation and cancer and nuclear research's effect on international relations
?displays how

Familial Dysautonomia

?genetic disease almost entirely within the jewish population
?"biological product of social organization"
?research funded by parent support group, interest in developing genetic test

FDA's Decision on Personal Genomics

?2013, FDA ordered 23&me to stop selling personal genome kits on the basis of speculation that results could drive consumers to make unhealthy decision without consulting a doctor
?displayed a precautionary approach

Translational Research Pipeline

?pipeline, bench to bedside, discoveries are made in the lab and applied in clinics
?different from cycle, not unilateral, clinical research feeds back into basic research
?different from its own field, no clean division between clinical and research
?all

Prader Willi & Angelman Syndromes

?example of cycle, how clinical research feeds back into basic/lab research
?physicians used staining and banding technique to map certain disorders to chromosomes
?both syndromes, with different symptoms, were mapped to chromosome 15
?both due to imprint

Oncotype DX Risk Score

?created by transitional researchers
?decision as to whether or not get chemotherapy, gives risk or reoccurrence score and percentage of reoccurrence for people who scored the same, looks at elevated expression of genes
?changed clinical decision making p

Harms of Genetic Testing

?simply providing genetic info is not neutral
?false positives and over treatment may cause patients to act on misunderstood about probabablistic information
?psychological harm
?ambiguous tests results

Infrastructures for Genetic Testing

?23&me, direct consumer testing, paid for by consumer, results delivered by consumer
?myriad genetics, advertised to consumers, paid for by consumer or insurance, ordered by physician, results delivered to physician
?national health service, UK, available

Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF)

?technology transfer office at UW madison, #10 in nation, 90 years old, made $54 million in 2010
?researches get 20% of licensing income, most of the profit goes back to the university

Technology Transfer Offices

?located on university campuses
?evaluate new inventions and helps researchers gain patent protection
?manage licensing for the patent, help scientist with management
?recognizes the "scientific entrepreneur" is motivated by money

Bayh-Dole Act

?1980, named after 2 senators influential in its passing
?allows universities to patent inventions developed with federal research funds, government retains march in rights to keep from sitting on inventions
?came out of concern that the benefits of basic

Diamond v. Chakrabarty

?1980
?patent for GM bacteria rejected
?appeals 5-4 in favor of patent, "the fact the microorganism is alive is without legal significance"
?opened up space for increased patenting in biology

Oncomouse

?genetically modified mouse strain with increased susceptibility to cancer, developed by Philip Leader
?licensed by Dupont
?applied for patent over whole mouse and process of putting cancer resistant oncotype gene in organism
?US, granted both
?Canada, gr

Monsanto Canada Inc v. Schmeiser

?Percy Schmeiser, organic farmer, finds pesticide resistant monsanto GMO seeds, saves and replants
?monsanto sues, court in monsanto favor, collection and growth of seeds constitutes unauthorized use of invention, even if on Schmeiser's property
?increase

Merton's Norms of Science

?1942
?communism, everything belongs to everyone, share freely
?universalism, anyone can participate
?disinterested, not interested in individual outcome, willing and open for any result
?organized skepticism, skeptical view of each other, peer review, ke

Genetech

?1976
?recombination of human insulin, early on biotechnology

Vitamin D Milk

?patented in the 1920s at UW madison, Babcock advised patent
?wanted to protect against "patent pirates" to keep the cost low, prevent advertisers from making unscientific claims, and protect the WI dairy industry
?argued patenting didn't interfere with t

Ghostwriting

?companies pay scientist to put their names on literature
?introduces widespread and systematic biases into pharmaceutical literature
?displays modern age corporate funds and practices of industry and patenting erode scientific norms

Francis Peyton Rous

?editor in scientific community, made changes to published articles in response to political pressure

C57 Black 6

?the most common geneticly altered mouse
?cons, weak immune system, a strand is only as good as its quirks, they only use males, may not actually be the best model organisms for pain research because not applicable to humans
?pros, widespread use and larg

Animal Welfare Act

?enacted in 1985
?original focus, where animals are from
?1966, LIFE magazine published a story on how dogs were being kept and the conditions in which they were living in
?1970, monitoring of warm blooded animals (not mice, rats, birds)
?1985, creation o

Utilitarianism

?use of animals is ethical when there is a maximum overall benefit of benefit over harm
?train track example
?Peter Singer, speciesism, starts animal rights but doesn't believe in rights

Rights Based Philosophies

?animals have some basic rights that are just as important as the rights of human being - example of the right not to be caused pain
?believes the use of animals in research is ethical when it meets standards similar to those applicable to human subject

Peer-Reared Monkeys

?example of how optimistic and pessimistic assessments both can be convincing
?optimistic view argues when a mother rejects offspring, only 1/158 show self harm
pessimistic view argues disruption of the mother infant bond is the most potent stimulator of

Model vs. Experimental Organisms

?model organisms, intensively studied to understand biological phenomenons, easy to work with, strong community of users, extensive research infrastructure, assumed to represent a larger group of organisms beyond itself, example is C elegan
?model organis

Moral Economy

?promotes exchange, unstated rules that define mutual expectations and obligations in the scientific workplace - credit goes to the person who did the work, give what you get, describe what you're planning on doing
?open exchange, community highly product

Planaria

?flatworm
?in modern age, use C elegans instead
?used in memory transfer experiments in the 1960s, not successful, use went down with failure
?modifying organisms makes them particularly useful for lab work, but only for some kinds of lab work

Genetic Essentialism

?goes along with eugenics
?tendency for people to think in more essentialist ways upon encountering genetic concepts
?belief that personality traits were hereditary
?concerns about "degeneration," high rates of reproduction in low social classes were wide

Buck v. Bell

?negative eugenics, 1927, upheld the legality of sterilization laws 8-1
?carrie buck committed to an institute at 17 for being a "moral imbecile," had a child out or wedlock - her mother was also committed for the exact same thing
?"three generations of i

Wisconsin Home for the Feeble Minded

?one of multiple institutions in WI
?1,800 people in WI were sterilized, 80% of which were women
?eugenics was not just Hitler, it was a wide-spread international movement with popular support
?the US was a leader in eugenic reforms up until the 1930s

Positive Eugenics

?negative, improving genetic composition of the population by discouraging undesirable traits from reproducing
?positive, improving the genetic composition of the population by encouraging desirable trait to reproduce - examples are better babies and fitt

Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act

?ELSI, created by the HGP, a progressive approach - anticipated and address possible ethical issues before they come
?prevents discrimination in employment or health insurance coverage based on genetic information
?prohibits employers from collecting gene

Backdoor Eugenics

?pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows genetic testing on embryos before implantation in the mom's stomach (IVF)
?first baby tested in 1990s
?largely unregulated, no laws, up to individual
?backdoor eugenics refers to how individual decisions ca

Return of Research Results

?1990s, genetic research protocols specified that patients would not get results back
?places burden on researchers, not as rigorous as clinical tests & there is always uncertainty in the meaning of results
?conflicts with patients "right to know" have ch