Chapter 9 urinary system; Diagnostic procedures, therapeutic procedures, and pharmacology

blood urea nitrogen

(BUN) blood test to measure kidney function by the level of nitrogenous waste (urea) that is in the blood

clean catch specimen

(CC) urine sample obtained after cleaning off the urinary opening and catching or collecting a urine sample in midstream to minimize contamination from the genitalia

creatininte clearance

test of kidney function, Creatinine is a waste product cleared from the bloodstream by kidneys.

urinalysis

(U/A, UA) laboratory test consisting of the physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of urine.

urine culture and sensitivity

(C&S) Laboratory test of urine for bacterial infection

urinometer

instrument to measure the specific gravity of urine; part of a urinalysis

cystogram

x-ray record of the urinary bladder

cystography

process of instilling a contrast material or dye into the bladder by catheter to visualize the urinary bladder on x-ray

excretory urography

injecting dye into the bloodstream and the taking an x-ray to trace the action of the kidney as it excretes the dye.

intravenous pyelography

(IVP) diagnostic x-ray procedure in which a dye is injected into a vein and then x-rays are taken to visualize the renal pelvis as the dye is removed by the kidneys

Kidneys, ureters, bladder

(KUB) x-ray taken of the abdomen demonstrating the kidneys, ureters, and bladder without using any contrast dye.

nephrogram

x-ray record of the kidney

pyelogram

x-ray record of the renal pelvis

retrograde pyelography

(RP) Diagnostic x-ray procedure in which dye is inserted through the urethra to outline the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis

voiding cystourethrography

(VCUG) x-ray taken to visualize the urethra while the patient is voiding after a contrast dye has been placed in the bladder

cystoscope

instrument used to visually examine the inside if the urinary bladder

cystoscopy

visually examination of the urinary bladder using an instrument called a cystoscope

urethroscope

instrument to visually examine the inside if the urethra.

catheter

flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body.

catheterization

insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye.

extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

use of ultrasound waves to break up stones. process does not require invasive surgery

hemodialysis

use of an artificial kidney machine that filters the blood of a person to remove waste products.

peritoneal dialysis

removal of toxic waste substances form of the body by placing warm chemically balanced solutions into the peritoneal cavity.

cystectomy

surgical removal of the urinary bladder

cystopexy

surgical fixation of the urinary bladder

cystoplasty

to repair the urinary bladder by surgical means

cystostomy

to create a new opening into the urinary bladder through the abdominal wall.

cystotomy

to cut into the urinary bladder

lithotomy

to cut into an organ for the purpose of removing a stone

lithotripsy

destroying or crushing stones in the bladder or urethra

meanotomy

to cut into the meatus in order to enlarge the opening of the urethra

nephrectomy

surgical removal of the kidney

nephrolithotomy

to cut into the kidney in order to remove stones

nephropexy

surgical fixation of a kidney; to anchor it in its normal anatomical position

nephrostomy

to create a new opening into the kidney through the abdominal wall

nephrotomy

to cut into the kidney

pyeloplasty

to repair the renal pelvis by surgical means

renal transplant

surgical placement of a donor kidney.

antibiotic

used to treat bacterial infections of the urinary trat

antispasmodic

medication to prevent or reduce bladder muscle spasms

diuretic

medication that increases the volume of urine produced by the kidneys.