human sexuality ch 10

abstinence-only approach

-where the focus is teaching kids to abstain from sex (no information on obtaining and using contraception and condoms)
-supporters say too much info will promote teenage sex

abstinence-plus

kids are taught that abstinence is the best policy, but are provided with information on contraception and condoms so those who have sex are prepared

comprehensive sex education

-abstinence is not key; given a wide range of information and the focus is developing responsible decision-making skills when it comes to sexual activity
-supporters say that some teens will have sex no matter what and they need to learn how to protect th

reasons women fail to use contraception before an unintended pregnancy

(1) didn't think you could get pregnant
(2) didn't really mind getting pregnant
(3) concerned about the side effects of birth control
(4) didn't expect to have sex
(5) male partner didn't want to use contraception
(6) male partner didn't want you to use c

behavioral methods of contraception

(1) abstinence
(2) outercourse
(3) withdrawal
(4) fertility awareness

abstinence

zero genital contact

outercourse

-any sexual activity other than penile-vaginal intercourse
-goal? prevent sperm from entering vagina
-virtually guarantees pregnancy prevention

withdrawal

-aka coitus interrptus
-"pull and pray"; removing the penis from vagina prior to ejaculation
-may not work due to (1) pre-ejaculation of Cowper's glands (2) some boys are not good at judging when they are going to ejaculate
-common mistakes: (1) pre-ejacu

perfect use

percentage of women who will NOT get pregnant over the course of the year id they utilized a given method consistently and never made a mistake

typical use

percentage of women who will NOT get pregnant over the course of the year id they utilized a given method consistently and never made a mistake AND provide for human error

fertility awarness

-methods that attempt to inform women when they are most likely to be fertile so they can temporarily abstain from vaginal intercourse or use barriers
-2 types:
(1) standard days method
(2) symptothermal method

standard days method

-plotting the menstrual cycle on a calendar to determine which days are likely "safer" to have sex
-can use CycleBeands

symptothermal method

checking for biological indicators of ovulation (ie. cervical mucus consistency and body temperature)

barrier methods of contraception

(1) male condoms
(2) female condoms
(3) spermicides
(4) cervical barriers

male condoms

-thin latex/polyurethane that covers an erect penis during sexual activity
-most popular method of birth control today
-provides some protection against STIs
-should not be used with mineral oil, baby oil, veggie oil, hand lotions, Vaseline, other petrole

female comdoms

-polyurethane pouch that lines the interior of the vagina
-penis is inserted through a ring that sits out of the vagina opening
-used by gay men during anal sex for STI protection
-1st woman controlled barrier method that protects against unwanted pregnan

spermicides

-chemicals that are placed inside the vagina that attempt to kill or disable sperm for a certain period of time
-different forms: foams, creams, jellies, suppositories
-best when coupled with other methods of of birth control (ie. condoms or diaphrams)

cervical barriers

-devices that obstruct sperm from entering the cervix
- ie. diaphragm or cervical cap
-lined with spermicide for additional protection

hormonal methods of contraception

(1) combined hormone methods
(2) progestin-only methods (3) emergency contraception

combined hormone methods

(1) the pill
(2) contraceptive patch
(3) vaginal ring

progestin-only methods

(1) progestin-only pill
(2) hormone injection
(3) hormonal intrauterine device (IUD)
(4) contraceptive implant
(5) emergency contraception
-cost more money up front, but but has much longer-lasting protection

contraception

intentionally preventing pregnancy from occurring

emergency contraception

-aka "morning after pill"
-safe and effective way to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse (both morning after pill (up to 3 days after) and the ParaGuard IUD (up to 5 days after))

diaphragm vs cervical cap

-diaphragm is larger and covers the upper portion of the vaginal wall
-must remain in place for 6 hours to prevent sperm from entering

the pill

-a combined hormone method
-hormones administered orally daily
-most commonly used
- <1% to 8% failure rate
-important to tell doctor you are taking it; several medication interfere with oral contraceptive effectiveness
-works by preventing ovulation

the patch

-a combined hormone method
-hormones are absorbed through the skin and is replaced weekly

the vaginal ring

-a combined hormone method
-hormones are absorbed through the vaginal tissues by a ring that is replaced monthly

progestin-only pill

-a progestin-only methods
-similar to "the pill

hormone rejection

-a progestin-only methods
-ie. Depo-Provera
-administered once every 3 months and provides very long-lasting fertility reduction
-potential for bone density loss

IUD (hormonal intrauterine device)

-a progestin-only methods
-small plastic "T" device that is inserted into the uterus by a doctor
-lasts the longest
-aka "reversible sterilization"
-made of copper (works as a spermicide inside the uterus)
-form long-acting reversible contraception which

contraceptive implant

-a progestin-only methods
-tiny plastic rod that is surgically implanted into the upper arm

emergency contraception (EC)

-a progestin-only methods
-hormone pill that is meant to prevent pregnancy after an instance of unprotected intercourse
-may be taken up to 3-5 days after unprotected sex
-work by preventing the fertilized egg from implanting in the uterus
-will NOT cause

tubal ligation

-female sterilization
-clamping or severing the fallopian tubes so that any egg released cannot come into contact with sperm (makes fertilization impossible)
-basically permanent
-100% effective at preventing pregnancy

vasectomy

-male sterilization
-severing or sealing the vans deferens so that sperm can no longer become part of seminal fluid
-basically permanent
-100% effective at preventing pregnancy

abortion

-a number of different medical procedures capable of ending an unwanted pregnancy
-can occur within the first few weeks of pregnancy can be accomplished with medications
-later ones require more involved surgical procedures
-controversial because it allow

douching

-used to prevent unintended pregnancy by washing sperm out of vagina, no matter now soon after intercourse a women douches, some sperm will have already made it to the cervix, and the pressure from douching can actually force sperm into the cervical openi

lacational amenorrhea method

3-6 months after giving birth and begin to breast feed, may not get pregnant

correct use of a male condom

(1) check to see if condom has expired
(2) unroll it onto penis before intercourse (3) use appropriate lubricant
(4) hold onto base as you remove penis after male orgasm to avoid slippage
(5) use only once

lubricant

if used with condoms, should be water based

diaphragm

-rubber cup, always used with spermicidal gel that fits over the cervix and prevents the passage of sperm into the uterus
-6% to 16% failure rate
-fitted by health care provider
-may be inserted up to 2 hours before intercourse
-leave in for at least 6 ho

nuvaring

-small ring that is put in vagina once a month for 3 weeks to prevent pregnancy
-works best when a woman inserts it herself, keeps it in place for 3 weeks, takes it out for 1 week, and then inserts a new ring
-between 1% and 9% failure rate

dental dams

-small, thin, square pieces of latex that are used for oral-vaginal or oral-anal sex
-prevent STDs during oral sex by keeping the vaginal and anal fluids that contain bacteria and viruses away from the mouth

VCF (vaginal contraceptive device)

-a paper-thin translucent film that contains a spermicide and is used for birth control
-placed in vagina, near cervix, to dissolve. the film is effective for about 1 hour and you must wait 15 minutes after inserting the film before having intercourse
-us

things to consider when choosing birth control methods

(1) comfort understanding and using method
(2) health risks and side effects
(3) financial considerations and doctor visits
(4) effectiveness in preventing pregnancy
(5) effectiveness in preventing STDs
(6) partner's attitudes
(7) reversibility

H2-gamendazole

-male birth control pill
-where? University of Kansas Medical Center
-in animal testing now
-keeps sperm from reaching maturity

JQ1

-male birth control pill
-where? Harvard's Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
-in chemical optimization now
-tricks body into "forgetting" how to make sperm

Vasagel

- male birth control polymer gel
-injected into the vas deferens and blocks sperm
-in human trials and could be on market as early as 2016-2017
-reversible vasectomy (quick procedure)

pro-life

right to life"; advocates for protecting human life by opposing abortion

pro-choice

right to choose"; advocates that women should retain the right to decide whether or not to have an abortion

methods of abortion

(1) medical (nonsurgical): RU486 or other drugs
(2) dilation and curettage
(3) dilation and evacuation
(4) induced labor
(5) intact dilation and evacuation

the US is...

...# 1 in teen pregnancy internationally (is not a problem unique to minority communities)
-and is the lowest rate it has been in years

consequences of teen motherhood for the mother

-less likely to complete high school or college
-more likely to be a single mother
-more likely to have more children sooner on a limited income
-more likely to abuse or neglect the child

risks to children of teen mothers

-growing up without a father
-low birthweight and prematurity
-school failure
-insufficient health care
-abuse and neglect
-poverty
-incarceration (boys)
-teen motherhood (girls)

how much do taxpayers spend on teen childbearing?

$9 billion ($1,430 per teen parent)

teen pregnancy in the US varies...

-by state (greater amount in Southern states)
-but has declined in every state since 1992

to sustain the progress in decreased pregnancy we must...

...give special support to communities with highest rates
(1) African-Americans rate is twice as much as Whites
(2) rise in Asian/Pacific Islander teens
(3) Latina teens have the highest rate
(4) Native Americans have higher rates of sexual activity than

most teen pregnancy occurs to...

...unmarried women