Abnormal Psych EXAM 2 Treatment of Mood Disorders

What are biological treatments for mood disorders?


What are examples of antidepressants medication?

monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)tricyclics

What are examples of second generation antidepressants?

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)serotnin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors

What is the normal job of monoamine oxidase?

breaks down neurotransmitters in the synapse

what do monoamine oxidase inhibitors do?

block destruction of neurotransmitters leading to rise in activity

what are the side effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors ( MAOIs)

possible dangerous rise in BP if they eat food containing tyramine (cheeses, bananas, certain wines)

What do tricyclics do?

- reduce depression by blocking reuptake of neurotransmitters- effective in 60-65% of patients- chance of relapse decreases with continuation of therapy

How are SSRIs and tricyclics related?

they are the same but SSRIs are specific to serotonin

What do SSRIs do?

increase serotonin without affecting other neurotransmitters

what are examples of SSRIs


What do selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors do?

increase norepinephrine levels without affecting other neurotransmitters

what is an example of an SNRI?


what do serotonin- norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors do?

increase both serotonin and norepinephrine levels

what is an example of a serotonin- norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor?


why are second generation antidepressants preferred over others?

they are harder to overdose

what are side effects of antidepressants?

weight gainreduced libido

What is electroconvulsive therapy

-6-12 treatments over 2-4 weeks- Given muscle relaxants and anesthesia reduce side effects- Two electrodes placed on the head and 64-140 volts of electricity passed through the brain

what is the effectiveness of ECT?

60-80% of patients improveeffective with sever depression

what are the side effects of ECT

memory loss of events immediately before the procedure, which may be permanent

What is transcranial magnetic stimulation ?


When do you see reductions in depression through the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation?

2-4 weeks when administered daily

What kind of depression is best treated by transcranial magnetic stimulation?

recurrent/ treatment resistant depression

what are the 2 vagus nerves essential for?

primary channel for communication between the brain and major organs

what is vagus nerve stimulation

- pulse generator implanted under the skin of the chest connected to the vagus nerve- stimulated every 5 minutes for 30 seconds

Is vagus nerve stimulation commonly used?

no because not that successful and super invasive

what kind of depression is vagus nerve stimulation used for?

recurrent/ treatment resistant depression

what is the percentage of people that undergo vagus nerve stimulation that see improvement


What is deep brain stimulation

- electrodes implanted in Broadman area 25- electrodes connected to pacemaker sending a steady stream of low-voltage electricity to the area

what is the goal of deep brain stimulation

recalibrate and regulate the depression circuit

in what areas of the 6 patient study did scientists see improvement through deep brain stimulation?

moodshort-term memoryquality of life

What is the goal of psychodynamic therapy for depression?

bring awareness to losses to consciousness, become less dependent on others, and cope more effectively

What are the three methods used in psychodynamic therapy of depression?

- free association - interpret patient's dreams and displays of resistance- help the person interpret past events and feelings

What is the psychodynamic cause to depression?

depression results from unconscious grief over real or imagined loss and excessive dependence on others

what is the behavioral cause of depression?

results from cycle of lost reinforcement and withdrawal

what is behavioral therapy do for depression?


What is the method of behavior treatment for depression?

behavioral activation (BA)

What is behavioral activation?


Behavioral activation ________ rewards


what is the goal of behavioral activation

monitor negative behaviors and try new, more positive ones

what is contingency management?

ignore a client's depressive behaviors while praising or rewarding constructive statements/ behaviors

What is the primary aim for cognitive treatment of depression?

attend to and correct distorted thinking(includes behavioral techniques)

What are the 4 phases of Beck's cognitive treatment of depression?

1. increasing activities and elevating mood2. identifying negative thinking and biases3. challenging automatic thoughts4. changing primary attitudes

what is done to increase actives and elevate mood in cognitive treatment for depression

encourage individuals to become more active and confident

what behavioral techniques are used to increase activities and elevate moods in cognitive treatment for depression

activity scheduling applying reinforcement

what is done to identify negative thinking and biases in cognitive treatment for depression

show how illogical thinking processes contribute to the thoughtsguide patients to recognize that interpretations of the events are negatively bias to change style of interpretation

what is done to challenge automatic thoughts in cognitive treatment for depression?


what is done to change primary attitudes in cognitive treatment for depression


what is the success rate of cognitive treatment of depression?

50-60% of individuals show near total elimination of symptoms

What is the focus of interpersonal psychotherapy (sociocultural perspective) for depression

focus on problems in current relationships

what are the 4 interpersonal problem areas that may lead to depression?

1. interpersonal loss (grief over loss of loved on)2. Role dispute (two people have different expectations of their relationship)3. Role transition: (brought on by major life changes like divorce or the birth of a child)4. Interpersonal deficits (unable to have intimate relationships)

How is interpersonal loss addressed in interpersonal psychotherapy of depression?

explore the relationship express emotionsdevelop new ways to remember the person

how is the role dispute addressed in interpersonal psychotherapy of depression?

examine and try to solve them

how is role transition addressed in interpersonal psychotherapy of depression?

help develop social supports foster skills the new roles require

how are interpersonal deficits addressed in interpersonal psychotherapy of depression?

help recognize deficits and teach social skills and assuredness to improve social effectiveness

What are biological treatments for bipolar disorder?


What are the two kinds of pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder?

lithium carbonate (too little, no effect... too much , toxic)mood stabilizing drugs

what are the two kinds of mood stabilizing drugs for bipolar disorder?

tegretoldepekene (anti seizure drugs)

What is pharmacotherapy effective for treating ?

manic episodes (>60% see improvement)less effective on depressive symptoms

what are psychological considerations to consider when dealing with bipolar disorder


Is psychotherapy or mood stabilizing drugs alone helpful or bipolar disorder?


what are the two kinds of psych treatment for bipolar disorder?

family focussed therapyinterpersonal social rhythm therapy

What is family focused therapy for bipolar disorder?


what is interpersonal social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder based on

recognition that a repeated episode of either mania or depression is often precipitated by- stressful life events- disruptions in social rhythm- failure to take meds

what is interpersonal social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder?


was mindfulness- based cognitive therapy successful in curing depression

reduced risk for relapse in patients with 3 or more previous episodes of depression (severe depression)

is behavioral activation therapy for depression successful?

less successful than cognitive, cognitive- behavioral, interpersonal or biological but better than placebo