Intro to Nutrition Ch 6 QUIZ

Vitamins and minerals

What are micronutrients?

Vitamins

What are compounds that contain carbon and are essential in regulating our body processes?

Water soluble or fat soluble

What are vitamins classified as?

Fat soluble

What type of vitamins are absorbed in the intestine along with dietary fat and are stores in the body for later use?

A, D, E, and K

List the fat soluble vitamins

Megadosing

What is the term for taking a dose of a nutrient that is 10 times the recommended amount?

Water soluble

What type of vitamins are not stored in our body and should be consumed on a daily, or at least weekly, basis?

C and B

List the water soluble vitamins

Retinol

In our bodies what is vitamin A converted to, which is found in the retina of the eye and is critical to the vision process?

Beta-carotene

What is a provitamin found in many fruits and vegetables?

Vitamin A

Our body converts beta-carotene into an active form of _____ called retinol.

Carotenoids

What are a group of plants pigments called that are the basis for the red, orange, and deep yellow colors of some fruits and vegetables?

Liver

What contains such a high amount of vitamin A, children and pregnant women are advised not to consume it more than a weekly basis to avoid fatal toxicity?

Night blindness

Vitamin A deficiency leads to what condition in which it is hard to see in dim lighting?

Vitamin D

What is both a vitamin and a hormone, because it can be synthesized by the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight?

Bones, calcium

Vitamin D guards our _____ by regulating the amount of _____ we absorb from the small intestine.

Rickets

What is vitamin D deficiency in children called?

Osteomalacia

What is vitamin D deficiency in adults called?

K, probiotic bacteria, large

What vitamin is required for blood clotting? It can be acquired by eating leafy green veggies, but it also made by _____ in the _____ intestine.

Coenzyme

What is a compound that combines with an inactive enzyme to firm an active enzyme called?

Antioxidants, free radicals

_____ are vitamins and minerals that protect cells against oxidation by unstable molecules called _____.

E and C

What two main antioxidant vitamins are both destroyed by oxygen and heat, so it is best to eat foods fresh to obtain them?

*alpha tocopherol

What is vitamin E also known as?

Ascorbic acid

What is vitamin C also known as?

Water

Is vitamin C a fat or water soluble vitamin?

Collagen

Vitamin C is important in synthesizing _____, a protein found in connective tissues in our bodies.

Scurvy

Vitamin C deficiency causes what disease that used to plague sailors on long sea voyages?

Iron

Vitamin C deficiency enhances the absorption of what mineral?

B, water

The _____ vitamins are _____-soluble
E and act as coenzymes to assist the body in generating energy from macronutrients.

Metabolism

What is the sum of all chemical and physical processes by which the body breaks down and builds up molecules called?

Thiamin

What is another term for vitamin B1?

Riboflavin

What is another term for vitamin B2?

Niacin

What is another term for vitamin B3?

Pyridoxine

What is another term for vitamin B6?

Folate

What is another term for vitamin B9?

Cobalamin

What is another term for vitamin B12?

Biotin

What is another term for vitamin B5?

Thiamin, glucose, beriberi

_____ plays a critical role in the breakdown of _____, and deficiency causes a disease called_____, characterized by muscle wasting and nerve damage.

Riboflavin, carbohydrates, fats, ariboflavinosis

_____ is a key coenzyme in the breakdown of _____ and _____, and a deficiency is referred to as _____.

Niacin, carbohydrates, fats, pellagra

_____ is a coenzyme that assists in the metabolism of ______ and _____, and deficiency causes a disease called _____, characterized by skin rash, diarrhea, and mental impairment.

B6, protein, amino acids

Vitamin _____, or pyridoxine, can be thought of as the "_____ vitamin" since it is needed to manufacture the nonessential _____ in our bodies

Folate, neural tube defect

_____ (vitamin B6) is critical for proper cell division; inadequate intake during early pregnancy results in the fetus developing a _____.

B12, nerves, blood

Vitamin _____ (cobalamin), is important for maintaining healthy _____ and _____.

Atrophic gastritis

Vitamin B12 deficiency is common as people get older due to this condition that results in low stomach acid secretion and reduced uptake of this vitamin.

*Red blood cells

Pernicious anemia is a form of B12 deficiency where people don't produce enough _____, a protein needed to absorb B12 in the intestines.

Biotin

_____ ( vitamin B5) is "widespread" in a variety of foods.

Choline, acetylcholine

What is a vitamin-like substance found in many foods and is involved in the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter, _____, involved in movement called?

Cancer

What is a group of disease characterized by cells growing out of control called?

Carcinogens

What are substances that cause cancer mutations called?

Phytochemicals

What are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, such as the plant pigments, that may reduce our risk of certain firms of cancer and other diseases.

Carotenoids

A phytochemical that is high in tomatoes and watermelon

Organosulfur

A phytochemical that is high in garlic and oinions

Flavonoids

A phytochemical that is high in red wine and dark chocolate

Phytoestrogens

A phytochemical that is high in soy and whole grains