Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation

The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.
True/False

True

The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.
True/False

False

There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.
True/False

False

Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.
True/False

False

The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.
True/False

False

Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic.

False

For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose.
True/False

True

Triglycerides and cholesterol do not circulate freely in the bloodstream.
True/False

True

The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.
True/False

True

Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.
True/False

True

Which of the following processes is likely to occur in the skeletal muscle cells during sprinting?
a. Oxidative phosphorylation
b. The Krebs cycle
c. Glycolysis
d. Lactic acid oxidation to pyruvic acid

c. Glycolysis

Why isn't it sufficient to reduce only dietary fat intake to prevent new fatty deposits from forming in the body?
a. Because ketone bodies form when fat intake is insufficient.
b. Acetyl CoA is a starting point for fatty acid synthesis.
c. Because muscle

b. Acetyl CoA is a starting point for fatty acid synthesis.

Which of the following molecules is produced in the process of detoxifying harmful ammonia?
a. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid
b. Amine
c. Keto acids
d. Urea

d. Urea

What is the primary process by which insulin is released after a meal is ingested?
a. Insulin is secreted in direct response to blood glucose.
b. The brain sends a hormone to the pancreas to stimulate insulin release.
c. Insulin release is constant.
d. Th

a. Insulin is secreted in direct response to blood glucose.

What is the primary objective during the postabsorptive state?
a. To collect and remove glucose from the blood and deposit it in cells
b. To convert fat to protein
c. To maintain blood glucose at around 70-110 mg/100 ml of blood
d. To elevate blood glucos

c. To maintain blood glucose at around 70-110 mg/100 ml of blood

Where are the two primary sources of glucose during the postabsorptive state?
a. Liver and skeletal muscle
b. Greater omentum and subcutaneous layer
c. Stomach and intestine
d. Brain and skin

a. Liver and skeletal muscle

Why are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered "good"?
a .HDLs transport cholesterol to the peripheral tissues for biosynthesis of steroid hormones.
b. The cholesterol transported by HDLs is destined for destruction.
c. HDLs transport cholesterol to

b. The cholesterol transported by HDLs is destined for destruction.

Which of the following factors is responsible for regulation of food intake?
a. Hormones such as leptin or NPY
b. Body temperature
c. Psychological factors
d. All of these

d. All of these

Which of the following is not a cause of the low metabolic rate typical of the elderly?
a. Declining efficiency of the endocrine system
b. Muscle and bone wasting
c. The liver has become more efficient in detoxification
d. The elderly are less active

c. The liver has become more efficient in detoxification

Heat is produced internally by __________.
a. friction between body parts
b. breaking of bonds within ATP
c. muscle contraction
d. all of these

d. all of these

Which of the following structures is responsible for feeding behavior?
a. pituitary
b. medulla
c. hypothalamus
d. pons

c. hypothalamus

A(n) __________ nutrient is one that the body cannot synthesize rapidly enough to be useful.
a. essential
b. regulatory
c. endemic
d. caloric

a. essential

What is a good source of unsaturated fats?
a. Dairy
b. Meats
c. Margarine
d. Nuts

d. Nuts

It is possible for vegetarians to obtain complete proteins by combining __________ and __________.
a. bread; vitamins
b. fats; pasta
c. milk; sugar
d. legumes; cereal grains

d. legumes; cereal grains

The major metabolic function for most vitamins is that they assist enzymes by serving as __________.
a. sources of ATP
b. active sites
c. substrates
d. coenzymes

d. coenzymes

In general metabolic terms, food digestion is a form of __________, while building new protein molecules is a form of __________.
a. anabolism; catabolism
b. metabolism; cellular respiration
c. catabolism; anabolism
d. cellular respiration; metabolism

c. catabolism; anabolism

The process whereby excess glucose is stored in cells is called __________.
a. glycogenolysis
b. glycolysis
c. glycogenesis
d. gluconeogenesis

c. glycogenesis

Hyperglycemic hormones include glucagon and __________.
a. aldosterone
b. epinephrine
c. GIP
d. insulin

b. epinephrine

About __________ of the body's required cholesterol is dietary.
a. 15%
b. 50%
c. 85%
d. 100%

a. 15%

The basal metabolic rate can most effectively be defined as the __________.
a. maximal energy used by the body
b. amount of energy needed to maintain life
c. lowest point of energy used by the body
d. energy required to digest a meal

b. amount of energy needed to maintain life

Which of the following has the greatest effect on the BMR?
a. Muscle mass
b. Fitness level
c. Body surface area
d. Gender

c. Body surface area

Of the following heat-promoting mechanisms, which appears to be most effective in adults?
a. Constriction of cutaneous vessels
b. Shivering
c. Increased metabolic rate
d. Thyroxine secretion

b. Shivering

Which of the following is an essential fatty acid?
a. Tyrosine
b. Triglyceride
c. Linoleic acid
d. Leucine

c. Linoleic acid

A negative nitrogen balance would be present in which situation?
a. Pregnancy
b. Starvation
c. Growth
d. All of these

b. Starvation

The primary function of cellular respiration is ______.
a. to synthesize proteins
b. to store energy
c. to produce ATP
d. to provide oxygen to the cells

c. to produce ATP

The end product of glycolysis is ______.
a. glucose
b. pyruvic acid
c. ATP
d. fructose-6-phosphate

b. pyruvic acid

Which of the following occurs in the cytoplasm?
a. The Krebs cycle
b. Glycolysis
c. The electron transport chain
d. Oxidative phosphorylation

b. Glycolysis

Which of the following is not one of the three main processes that occurs during protein metabolism?
a. Beta oxidation
b. Oxidative deamination
c. Transamination
d. Keto acid modification

a. Beta oxidation

Glucose molecules are combined to form glycogen in a process called ______.
a. gluconeogenesis
b. glycogenolysis
c. glycogenesis
d. glycolysis

c. glycogenesis

Metabolic acidosis can result from an accumulation of ______ in the blood.
a. triglycerides
b. chylomicrons
c. carbon dioxide
d. ketones

d. ketones

All of the following are pathways of glucose catabolism except ______.
a. glycolysis
b. the electron transport chain
c. the Krebs cycle
d. gluconeogenesis

d. gluconeogenesis

Which of the following is a substance that transports cholesterol to the liver for degradation?
a. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)
b. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
c. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
d. Chylomicron

b. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)

Insulin promotes all of the following except ______.
a. gluconeogenesis
b. protein synthesis
c. glycogenesis
d. lipogenesis

a. gluconeogenesis

Which of the following substances does not suppress appetite and increase satiety?
a. Leptin
b. Insulin
c. Neuropeptide Y
d. Cholecystokinin

c. Neuropeptide Y

Which of the following is NOT a major nutrient?
water
lipids
minerals
proteins

minerals

glucose - Match the following term with its descriptions
a. exclusive energy source for neurons
b. may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger
c. serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
d. can func

a. exclusive energy source for neurons

cholesterol - Match the following term with its descriptions
a. exclusive energy source for neurons
b. may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger
c. serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
d. can

c. serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane

protein - Match the following term with its descriptions
a. exclusive energy source for neurons
b. may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger
c. serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
d. can func

e. used to build enzymes

vitamins - Match the following term with its descriptions
a. exclusive energy source for neurons
b. may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger
c. serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
d. can fun

d. can function as coenzymes

mineral - Match the following term with its descriptions
a. exclusive energy source for neurons
b. may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger
c. serves as a precursor to hormones and maintains the fluidity of the plasma membrane
d. can func

b. may be incorporated into structures to make them stronger

A person who is starving is likely to exhibit __________.
neutral nitrogen balance
positive nitrogen balance
nitrogen balance
negative nitrogen balance

negative nitrogen balance

Fat-soluble vitamins can be toxic if consumed in large quantities.
True/ False

True

Which of the following is an example of catabolism?
a. lipid synthesis
b. absorbing nutrients into the blood from the intestines
c. using amino acids to make a protein
d. cellular respiration

d. cellular respiration

A substance that is reduced has lost an electron.
True/False

False

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of glycolysis?
a. Glycolysis is an aerobic process.
b. Glycolysis begins with glucose-6-phosphate.
c. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of a cell.
d. The final products of glycolysis include two molecules of p

a. Glycolysis is an aerobic process.

Which of the following is a characteristic of the Krebs cycle?
a. The Krebs cycle occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
b. The Krebs cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2.
c. Pyruvic acid directly enters the Krebs cycle.
d. T

b. The Krebs cycle generates a rich supply of the reduced coenzymes, NADH and FADH2.

The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is __________.
oxygen
NADH
CO2
water

oxygen

glycogenesis - Match the following term to its correct description.
a. triglyceride synthesis
b. the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
c. the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose
e.

d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose

glycogenolysis - Match the following term to its correct description.
a. triglyceride synthesis
b. the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
c. the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose
e

b. the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose

gluconeogenesis - Match the following term to its correct description.
a. triglyceride synthesis
b. the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
c. the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose

c. the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules

beta oxidation - Match the following term to its correct description.
a. triglyceride synthesis
b. the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
c. the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose
e

d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose

lipogenesis - Match the following term to its correct description.
a. triglyceride synthesis
b. the cleavage of glycogen to release glucose
c. the process of forming glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules
d. the formation of glycogen to store glucose
e. t

a. triglyceride synthesis

As proteins are broken down for energy, __________ is generated; the liver then converts this potentially toxic intermediate into __________.
a. urea; water
b. acid; ammonia
c. ammonia; glucose
d. ammonia; urea

d. ammonia; urea

In the absorptive state, __________.
a. insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone
b. fats are the main energy fuel
c. catabolism exceeds anabolism
d. glycogen is broken down to release glucose

a. insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone

In the postabsorptive state, __________.
a. insulin serves as the main regulatory hormone
b. glycogen is broken down to release glucose
c. glucose is the main energy source
d. anabolism exceeds catabolism

b. glycogen is broken down to release glucose

__________ is considered "good" cholesterol; high blood levels of this cholesterol are thought to be beneficial.
LDLs
VLDLs
HDLs
chylomicrons

HDLs

Which of the following is considered a long-term regulator of feeding behavior?
a. blood concentrations of amino acids and fatty acids
b. cholecystokinin (CCK) levels
c. leptin levels
d. stimulation of stretch receptors

c. leptin levels

The body's overall rate of energy output is called the basal metabolic rate.
True/ False

False

Which of the following would raise body temperature?
evaporation
sweating
dilation of cutaneous blood vessels
thyroxine

thyroxine

Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant.
True/False

True

Conduction is the same as radiation heat loss.
True/False

False

Conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid occurs when sufficient oxygen is NOT available.
True/False

True

In glycolysis, glucose is initially cleaved into three 2-carbon groups.
True/False

False

In order for amino acids to be converted into lipids, they must be deaminated.
True/False

True

Most required nutrients can be obtained by eating bread and meats.
True/False

False

Oxidative phosphorylation is coupled to chemiosmosis.
True/False

True

The role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to combine with carbon during the Krebs cycle.
True/False

False

When blood glucose levels fall, glucagon is released and causes glycogenesis.
True/False

False

Anabolism is a building process in which larger molecules are built from smaller ones, while catabolism is a tearing down process in which complex structures are degraded to simpler ones.
True/False

True

The Krebs cycle is the partial breakdown of pyruvic acid.
True/False

False

Before lipids can be metabolized, the fatty acids must undergo beta oxidation to be converted into two-carbon acetic acid fragments.
True/False

True

Gluconeogenesis occurs during cell respiration in the mitochondria.
True/False

False

The major function of HDLs is to transport excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver.
True/False

True

Calcium is a mineral.
True/False

True

beta oxidation - Match the cellular respiration term with the correct characteristic.
a. requires ATP synthase at end
b. results in fatty acid chains being broken down
c. initial metabolite is citric acid
d. end product is pyruvic acid

b. results in fatty acid chains being broken down

glycolysis - Match the cellular respiration term with the correct characteristic.
a. requires ATP synthase at end
b. results in fatty acid chains being broken down
c. initial metabolite is citric acid
d. end product is pyruvic acid

d. end product is pyruvic acid

Krebs cycle - Match the cellular respiration term with the correct characteristic.
a. requires ATP synthase at end
b. results in fatty acid chains being broken down
c. initial metabolite is citric acid
d. end product is pyruvic acid

c. initial metabolite is citric acid

oxidative phosphorylation - Match the cellular respiration term with the correct characteristic.
a. requires ATP synthase at end
b. results in fatty acid chains being broken down
c. initial metabolite is citric acid
d. end product is pyruvic acid

a. requires ATP synthase at end

carbohydrate - Match the nutrient with its correct set of characteristics.
a. composed of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells as well as functional components (enzymes)
b. composed of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for

b. composed of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for cellular respiration

protein - Match the nutrient with its correct set of characteristics.
a. composed of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells as well as functional components (enzymes)
b. composed of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for cellu

a. composed of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells as well as functional components (enzymes)

lipids - Match the nutrient with its correct set of characteristics.
a. composed of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells as well as functional components (enzymes)
b. composed of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for cellul

c. composed of fatty acids and glycerol; should be 20%-35% of caloric intake

minerals - Match the nutrient with its correct set of characteristics.
a. composed of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells as well as functional components (enzymes)
b. composed of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for cell

d. most are electrolytes; some are important as cofactors

vitamins - Match the nutrient with its correct set of characteristics.
a. composed of amino acids; used to build structural components of cells as well as functional components (enzymes)
b. composed of simple sugars; used as the major fuel source for cell

e. small organic molecules; important as coenzymes; fat-soluble forms are A, D, E, and K

carbohydrates - Match the nutrient category with its uses.
a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body
b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes
c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis
d. incorporated into some body structures; use

c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis

lipids - Match the nutrient category with its uses.
a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body
b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes
c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis
d. incorporated into some body structures; used in co

b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes

proteins - Match the nutrient category with its uses.
a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body
b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes
c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis
d. incorporated into some body structures; used in

f. important structural material (keratin, collagen, etc.) and functional material (enzymes, etc.)

vitamins - Match the nutrient category with its uses.
a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body
b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes
c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis
d. incorporated into some body structures; used in

e. most function as coenzymes; not used as structural components

minerals - Match the nutrient category with its uses.
a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body
b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes
c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis
d. incorporated into some body structures; used in

d. incorporated into some body structures; used in conjunction with enzymes

water - Match the nutrient category with its uses.
a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body
b. act as an accessory fuel; component of membranes
c. provide primary source of fuel for ATP synthesis
d. incorporated into some body structures; used in con

a. solvent for chemical reactions in the body

vitamin A - Match the following vitamin with its function(s).
a. essential for formation of clotting proteins; intermediate in electron transport; participates in oxidative phosphorylation
b. enhances absorption of calcium; works in conjunction with hormo

d. required for synthesis of photoreceptor pigments in vision, integrity of skin and mucosae

vitamin E - Match the following vitamin with its function(s).
a. essential for formation of clotting proteins; intermediate in electron transport; participates in oxidative phosphorylation
b. enhances absorption of calcium; works in conjunction with hormo

c. primarily an antioxidant preventing oxidative damage to cell membranes and atherosclerosis

vitamin D - Match the following vitamin with its function(s).
a. essential for formation of clotting proteins; intermediate in electron transport; participates in oxidative phosphorylation
b. enhances absorption of calcium; works in conjunction with hormo

b. enhances absorption of calcium; works in conjunction with hormones regulating calcium blood levels

vitamin K - Match the following vitamin with its function(s).
a. essential for formation of clotting proteins; intermediate in electron transport; participates in oxidative phosphorylation
b. enhances absorption of calcium; works in conjunction with hormo

a. essential for formation of clotting proteins; intermediate in electron transport; participates in oxidative phosphorylation

vitamin C - Match the vitamin with its function(s).
a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production
b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to transform pyruvic a

f. important in formation of connective tissues, antioxidant, conversion of tryptophan to serotonin, and conversion of cholesterol to bile salts

vitamin B1 (thiamine) - Match the vitamin with its function(s).
a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production
b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to transfo

b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to transform pyruvic acid to acetyl CoA; oxidation of alcohol

vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - Match the vitamin with its function(s).
a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production
b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to trans

e. acts as hydrogen acceptor in electron transport (FAD and FMN); component of amino acid oxidases

niacin - Match the vitamin with its function(s).
a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production
b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to transform pyruvic acid

d. acts as hydrogen acceptor in electron transport (NAD) during glycolysis and Krebs cycle; inhibits cholesterol synthesis; peripheral vasodilator

folic acid - Match the vitamin with its function(s).
a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production
b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to transform pyruvic

c. basis of coenzymes in formation of certain amino acids, choline, DNA, RBCs, and normal neural tube development in the embryo

vitamin B12 - Match the vitamin with its function(s).
a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production
b. acts as a coenzyme in carbohydrate metabolism; required to transform pyruvic

a. functions as coenzyme in all cells; acts in synthesis of DNA; essential for erythrocyte division during RBC production

calcium - Match the mineral with its sources.
a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains
b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes
c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish
d. avocados, dried apric

c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish

sulfur - Match the mineral with its sources.
a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains
b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes
c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish
d. avocados, dried aprico

d. avocados, dried apricots, meat, fish, fowl, cereals, bananas

potassium - Match the mineral with its sources.
a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains
b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes
c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish
d. avocados, dried apr

b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes

sodium - Match the mineral with its sources.
a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains
b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes
c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish
d. avocados, dried aprico

f. cured meats, sauerkraut, cheese

magnesium - Match the mineral with its sources.
a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains
b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes
c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish
d. avocados, dried apr

e. milk, dairy products, whole grain cereals, nuts, legumes, leafy green vegetables

phosphorus - Match the mineral with its sources.
a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains
b. meat, milk, eggs, legumes
c. milk, milk products, leafy green vegetables, egg yolk, shellfish
d. avocados, dried ap

a. diets rich in proteins; milk, eggs, meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, whole grains

glycolysis - Match the event of aerobic cell respiration with its product.
a. most ATP and 12 H2O molecules
b. five carbon dioxide molecules and ten molecules of reduced coenzymes (NADH + H+ and FADH2)
c. two molecules of pyruvic acid and two NADH + H+

c. two molecules of pyruvic acid and two NADH + H+

Krebs cycle - Match the event of aerobic cell respiration with its product.
a. most ATP and 12 H2O molecules
b. five carbon dioxide molecules and ten molecules of reduced coenzymes (NADH + H+ and FADH2)
c. two molecules of pyruvic acid and two NADH + H+

b. five carbon dioxide molecules and ten molecules of reduced coenzymes (NADH + H+ and FADH2)

electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation - Match the event of aerobic cell respiration with its product.
a. most ATP and 12 H2O molecules
b. five carbon dioxide molecules and ten molecules of reduced coenzymes (NADH + H+ and FADH2)
c. two mo

a. most ATP and 12 H2O molecules

glycolysis - Match the metabolism event with the process occurring.
a. breakdown of lipids
b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources
c. triglyceride synthesis
d. breakdown of glucose
e. removal of NH3
f. polymerization of glucose

d. breakdown of glucose

lipolysis - Match the metabolism event with the process occurring.
a. breakdown of lipids
b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources
c. triglyceride synthesis
d. breakdown of glucose
e. removal of NH3
f. polymerization of glucose

a. breakdown of lipids

gluconeogenesis - Match the metabolism event with the process occurring.
a. breakdown of lipids
b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources
c. triglyceride synthesis
d. breakdown of glucose
e. removal of NH3
f. polymerization of glucose

b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources

lipogenesis - Match the metabolism event with the process occurring.
a. breakdown of lipids
b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources
c. triglyceride synthesis
d. breakdown of glucose
e. removal of NH3
f. polymerization of glucose

c. triglyceride synthesis

glycogenesis - Match the metabolism event with the process occurring.
a. breakdown of lipids
b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources
c. triglyceride synthesis
d. breakdown of glucose
e. removal of NH3
f. polymerization of glucose

f. polymerization of glucose

transamination - Match the metabolism event with the process occurring.
a. breakdown of lipids
b. production of glucose from a noncarbohydrate sources
c. triglyceride synthesis
d. breakdown of glucose
e. removal of NH3
f. polymerization of glucose

e. removal of NH3

A major means for conserving heat is __________.
vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
increased convective loss
increased metabolic rate
enhanced sweating

vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels

In glycolysis, glucose must be activated with the use of how many ATP molecules?
one
two
three
five
ten

two

Most vitamins __________.
are used as building blocks for the body
are metabolized to make ATP
are carbohydrates
function as coenzymes in the body

function as coenzymes in the body

One function of vitamin A is to __________.
help with calcium absorption
transfer electrons in cellular respiration
assist in blood clotting
make DNA synthesis possible
form visual pigments

form visual pigments

The hormone responsible for setting the basal metabolic rate is __________.
melatonin
thyroxine
glucagon
insulin
melanin

thyroxine

The site of electron transport is the __________.
mitochondrial outer membrane
mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)
golgi body
mitochondrial matrix
cytoplasm

mitochondrial inner membrane (cristae)

The thermoregulatory center is located in the __________.
liver
mitochondrion
hypothalamus
thymus gland
spinal cord

hypothalamus

Which coenzyme is reduced in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle?
vitamin A
FAD
NAD
coenzyme A
manganese

NAD

Which element below is considered a trace mineral?
chlorine
phosphorus
potassium
chromium
sodium

chromium

Which lipoprotein contains high levels of cholesterol?
IDL
HDL
VLDL
chylomicron
LDL

LDL

Nutritionally incomplete proteins are low in __________.
one or more of the major vitamins
one or more of the coenzymes
one or more of the essential amino acids
actin and myosin
one or more of the essential fatty acids

one or more of the essential amino acids

Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is produced by __________.
a. the Krebs cycle
b. oxidative phosphorylation during the chemiosmotic process
c. gluconeogenesis
d. substrate-level phosphorylation
e. glycolysis

b. oxidative phosphorylation during the chemiosmotic process

A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is __________.
to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis
glycolysis
electron transport to release glucose
to store excess glucose by glycogenesis
lipogenesis

to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis

The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is __________.
glucagon
thyroxine
ADH
calcitonin
insulin

insulin

Which of the following factors makes it harder for an obese person to lose weight?
a. an increase in heat loss from the body that requires more food intake
b. an increase in thyroxine levels as fat levels accumulate
c. an increase in taste receptors
d. an

e. an increase in alpha receptors (the kind that favors fat accumulation) in fat cells

Which of the following is the amount of energy the body needs to maintain life?
BMI
BMR
TMR
MR

BMR

Which of the following is a physiological response to hypothermia?
drinking warm fluids
shivering
covering up with a blanket
increasing physical activity

shivering

A kilocalorie is the amount of energy __________.
a. needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Fahrenheit
b. needed to move 1 kilogram of water 1 meter
c. locked up in 1 kilogram of water
d. needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius

d. needed to heat 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius

Essential nutrients refer to nutrients that are __________.
a. stored in the body for times of starvation
b. essential for the human body to function
c. synthesized every day in the body
d. obtained from an outside source because the body cannot make them

d. obtained from an outside source because the body cannot make them fast enough to meet the body's needs, so our diet must provide them

Prolonged high protein intake can lead to __________.
muscle building
a negative nitrogen balance
loss of bone mass
kidney damage

loss of bone mass

Which of the following substances is considered a provitamin?
iron
vitamin D
niacin
beta-carotene

beta-carotene

Which of the following fat-soluble vitamins is NOT stored in the body?
vitamin E
vitamin K
vitamin D
vitamin A

vitamin K

The final product of glycolysis is __________.
a. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
b. the formation of four ATP molecules
c. two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP
d. the production of acetyl coenzyme A

c. two molecules of pyruvic acid, two molecules of NAD+, and a net gain of two ATP

Cyanide acts as a poison by __________.
a. blocking glycolysis
b. interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain
c. irreversibly binding to oxygen
d. abolishing the proton gradient by making the cristae membrane permeable to H+

b. interfering with the flow of electrons in the electron transport chain

During fasts lasting several weeks, blood glucose is maintained by __________.
gluconeogenesis
lipolysis
glycolysis
glycogenolysis

gluconeogenesis

A low-density lipoprotein would contain __________.
a low cholesterol content
a low lipid content
a high lipid content
a high protein content

a high lipid content

The role of __________ is to transport excessive cholesterol from peripheral tissue to the liver, where it is broken down and becomes part of bile.
chylomicrons
high-density lipoproteins
low-density lipoproteins
very low density lipoproteins

high-density lipoproteins

The official medical measurement of obesity is the __________.
basal metabolic rate
proportion of LDLs to body weight
proportion of bone density to weight
body mass index

body mass index

__________ acts to suppress appetite by inhibiting __________, which is the most-powerful known appetite stimulant.
Leptin; neuropeptide Y
Growth hormone; lipase
Serotonin; adrenaline
Insulin; glucagon

Leptin; neuropeptide Y

Which of the following statements about "redox" reactions in human metabolism is correct?
Oxidized substances gain energy.
Enzymes accept hydrogen.
The substance being reduced loses an electron.
Coenzymes accept hydrogen.

Coenzymes accept hydrogen.