Diary Goats

What is the big anatomical difference between a cow udder and a goat udder?

Goats have two halves, not four quarters

Where is milk mostly stored in the goat vs the cow?

In the goat, most in the gland cistern; in the cow, alveolar storage

Who is more reliant on oxytocin for milk let down - the cow or the doe?

The cow

True or False: there are both automated and hand milking systems used for goats

True

Compare goat milk to cows milk

Goat milk has slightly higher fat and energy density than bovine and a slightly lower lactose content

Why do people drink goat milk?

Low lactose, cow milk allergy, for their families (why it's super important you inform them about w/d's)

Other than milk, what other goat dairy products are there?

Ch�vre, yogurt, ice cream, butter...

Draw/think up the life cycle of goats

What are the main animal groups based on life stage?

Bred Does and Dry Does; Kidding Does, Newborn Kids (on dairies, these are removed asap from mum to decrease CAE spread), Kids and weanlings, Bucks

What does the disease CL stand for? What is it caused by?

Caseous Lymphadenitis. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

What does CAE stand for?

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis virus

What is Johne's Disease caused by?

Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis

What vaccine doe dairy goats commonly get?

CD-T" - Clostridium perfringens type C and D plus Tetanus

What is the nickname owners give to the CD+T vaccine? Why

The Overeating Vaccine. The C perfringens part of the vaccine is desiged to protect animals from overgrowth of enteric clostridial organisms "enterotoxemia" associated w/ severe life threatening GI disease.

When would goats most likely be exposed to tetanus?

Band castration

How do you decide which other vaccine to use in goats

Farm specific. Not many are labeled for goats and few are used. Those that might be used include: chlamydia, rabies, leptospirosis, orf, CL, pneumonia

What is your highest risk group of animals?

Does in late gestation

What are three negative energy balance diseases in late gestation animals?

Pregnancy toxemia, hepatic lipidosis, hypocalcemia

Why do you get pregnancy toxemia?

Not enough E intake for the demand of late gestation; multifactorial causes - feed, stress, concurrent disease, multiple fetuses

What is the simple version of why hepatic lipidosis occurs?

Excessive fat mobilization, overwhelms the liver

What does hypocalcemia occur in late gestation?

Fetal bone development drains Ca, insufficient Ca mobilization by the doe to keep up. Made worse since neg E balance since as the liver mobilizes lipids, it gets less good at processing vit D

True or false - a neg energy balance in late gestation is unavoidable

FALSE - it is preventable.

What are 7 herd management strategies to prevent diseases of negative E balance? (worth a gazillion points)

1) Provide adequate rations (higher E than in dry period; goal BCS 3.5-3.75)
2) eliminate competition for food (does in small groups with adequate bunk space)
3) Decrease stressors late in gestation (don't be moving them around, processing or it be too ho

Before you get to late gestation, what are three things you should do to make sure things go smoothly?

- vaccinate (1 month prior to kidding)
- fecal float (hopefully won't have a heavy load, but if they do, treat now)
- prepare the udder (clip and clean)

Why do you vaccinate in late gestation?

to increase colostrum quality

What are 4 problems that can arise during kidding for the doe?

1) dystocia
2) uterine/vaginal trauma
3) retained fetal membranes (REM)
4) metritis

What are the consequences of dystocia to the kid?

1) neonatal mortality due to dystocia
hypoxic, weak kids
injuries to neonate

What are 4 umbrella management items to address for kidding?

1) Accurate breeding dates (keep good records!)
2) Observed kidding
3) Clean maternity pens w/ adequate ventilation and protection from the elements
4) Look back to early dry period mgt

Why do we want accurate breeding dates?

- so we kid at predictable times
- earlier ID of other conditions (hydrometra, precocious udder)

Why do we want to observe kidding?

- Allows timely intervention if dystocia

How do you manage to observe kidding?

- shifts checking the close-up does
- video cameras
- timed induction at term (but need to make sure your dates are right...don't want too early!)

Why do you want to look back to early dry period mgtg:

to address systemic dz or poor BCS BEFORE kidding and late gestation

What are the two big conditions of the udder to be worries about during lactation?

mastitis, udder edema

What is udder edema? When do you see it?

Pitting edema of the udder. Happens in fresh does - at the onset of lactation - esp if primiparous

Other than mastitis and udder edema, what conditions of the mammary glad can you get in lactating does?

Warts, Orf, Skin infections (staph), trauma; important as cause break down of protective barriers --> mastitis

What are the Clinical signs of mastitis in dairy goats?

Variable; warm or cool, firm, colour change, painful, swollen, abnormal milk, systemic illness, and lameness

How is an animal with subclinical mastitis defined?

One where the animal and milk are grossly normal, but there is a high Somatic Cell Count or bacteria count present in milk

When can Mastitis occur?

Any time! Including during the dry period and prior to lactation.

Why do you have to be careful of your SCC interpretation in goats?

There can be a significant increase in SCC late in lactation in normal goats. Cytoplasmic particles are normal in goats - similar size to leukocytes...but they aren't leukocytes!

What CMT test result actually indicates you have a problem?

Not until +++, and even then if a low volume producing, late lactation doe, might be normal. A very large grey area

What are your main contagious agents for mastitis in goats?

- Coag neg Staph (quite significant in goats)
- Grangrenous and non-gangrenous S aureus
- Streptococcus agalactiae
- Mycoplasma spps (some reportable!)
- CAE (viral)

What are you environmental pathogens to cause mastitis in dairy goats?

E. coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas contaminated milking equipment)

True or false: should you submit a culture if you have mastitis?

True

For contagious mastitis, how do you limit the spread? (7 ways)

Milking Hygiene:
- wear gloves
- pre and post dip
- use clean milking equipment and monitor bulk tank cultures
- ensure milking equipment is working right (no mechanical injury or milk back-flow)
- Avoid milking induced trauma
- chose your milking order w

How do you manage environmental mastitis?

*Look of an underlying cause and correct it
- What is dirty? Clean it! What about other husbandry factors - are they overcrowded? is the ventilation poor? high humidity? etc
- Teat damage: from milker, (kids), orf, poor bedding etc
- Pseudomonas biofilm i

What must you consider when using intramammary infusions?

That it will be off label for goats and as such must figure out what the new w/d time will be

When are intramammary infusions helpful?

In goats with mastitis - including controlling mastitis in the dry period

When would you consider teat sealants at dry off?

Only if environment is dirty. Uncommonly used

Why do we bother to try and avoid failure of transfer of passive immunity?

If failure of transfer of passive immunity occurs, the kids are at great risk of infection and sepsis can ensue

What are infectious diseases to consider in kids?

- Scours (many etiologies, some of which zoonotic)
- CAE encephalitis
- Pneumonia (bacterial or viral)

What nutritional diseases should you think about in neonates and kids?

If improper milk feeding: scours, bloat, enterotoxaemia, polioencephalomalacia deficiencies, salt tox etc

What are two broad categories of pneumonia to think about in neonates and kids?

aspiration pneumonia and infectious pneumonia (bacterial/viral)

Brrr I'm cold" says the little goat...

Worry about hypothermia

What can happen to neonates/kids as a direct result of management?

Improper cautery disbudding --> thermal meningitis
Castration/banding --> tetanus, penile injury, urolithiasis

While they are neonates, how do you keep kids from dying? (5 steps - nothing about colostrum yet)

1) Dry and remove from doe at birth (control CAE)
2) ID w/ a collar/ear tag/markings + m/f
3) Dip navel w/ dilute chlorohexadine solution (portal of pathogen entry)
4) administer selenium + vit E products (esp if in a deficient region)
5) provide neonatal

What are four things to consider with colostrum management?

Quality, Volume, Timing, Monitoring success.

What are considerations for colostrum quality?

- Ideally, from within the herd
- From a doe who has had an adequate dry period (2-3m)
- From known CAE and CL neg does
- Fresh or frozen in individual doses
- Commercial goat colostrum

What volume colostrum should be given?

10-20% of body weight daily, divided into 4 feedings for 2-3 days (longer than 24 hrs so you get local IgG function)

When should you first give colostrum?

First feeding within 2-3 hours of birth. After 24 hrs, negligible IgG uptake

How should you monitor your colostrum management success?

- IgG - submit serum for quantification
- TP - on far can use as an estimate
- Frequency of neonatal sepsis...you've failed if high

What should you worry about with a milk bar for kids?

- Avoid bacterial overgrowth
- Avoid overfeeding
- Manage aspiration risk

How much feed/ milk should kids be getting per day?

Milk: 10-20% BW/kid/day then divide into 4 feedings initially. Once older, decrease to twice daily.
Feed: gradual intro to starter feed. Fresh feed should be given daily; kids may start nibbling at it after about 1 wk of age.

When should kids get their CD+T vaccine?

A) if colostrum donor was adequately immunised: 1st vaccine @ 1-2 m then booster in 3-4 wks
B) Poor or unknown colostrum donor vaccination hx: start CD+T vaccine @ 1-3 wks of age then booster at 3-4 wk intervals until 2-3 m of age

Why should you remove feces daily from kid housing?

Reduce risk of:
- Cocciia, giardia/crypto, salmonella, E coli

How do you avoid banding complications?

Appropriate technique and confirm placement. Tetanus vaccine (passive immunity from colostrum then active via CD+T vaccination)

How do you avoid improper disbudding?

train all personnel so appropriate technique, have a nice copper ring - don't burn down to skull!!!

What are your options for breeding?

- AI
- Hand breeding
- Buck turned in with does for 32 d (1.5 cycles) (uncommon)

How old should you use a buck to breed?

Usually bred at 1 year. But can breed much earlier so separate from doelings at 3 months

In diary goats, what anatomic feature is cause for culling?

Any extra teats and any abnormal genitalia/mammary tissue

Is it an okay idea to co-mingle groups for breeding?

Consider biosecurity. test (at a minimum) for CAE and CL before entry into breeding herd. Never co-mingle if animals have any evidence of infectious dz

What orthopedic issues need to be addressed in bucks?

- If overgrown or foot rot
- arthritis in lumbar region from excessive breeding

If you have one blocked goat, what could be next?

Many blocked goats

What is the most common type of uroliths?

struvite

What is the cause of urolithiasis?

Multifactorial - a diet w/ too much P is a big prob

To prevent lumbar arteritis in bucks, what is an adequate buck:doe breeding ratio?

1buck:30 does

How can you prevent urolithiasis?

- Diet 2:1 Ca:P ratio, supplemental salt or ammonium chloride as needed.
- Plenty of clean water always
- Do not feed same as lactation does - too much grain
- For wethers, keep in mind, smaller urethra due to castration

For bucks, what BCS should you aim for before the breeding season?

3-3.5

When should you vaccinate bucks? Which vaccine(s)?

Annually with the CD+T at the same time as the doe boosters. If the herd has a problem with Chlamydia, vaccinate for that too.

How many breeding seasons should you use a buck? Why not all the time?

After a few seasons, remove or rest to avoid inbreeding

True or False? You only have to worry about parasites in bucks right at the start of breeding season

False...maintain year round vigilance!

If a herd was consistently having a problem with Pregnancy Toxemia, how would you go about fixing it. Provide owners with a 6 step plan.

1) Treat sick animals by correcting negative e balance and supportive care.
2) Test for ketones in other pregnant does who are not clinical. If indicated, treat them too
3) Adjust the feed for late pregnancy - enough E density and enough access to the fee

If you deworm your goats, will you solve your GI parasite problem? Why can't you rely on deworming?

Nope. Have to consider milk residues, teratogenesis and resistance. Good fecal management is key

When would you typically deworm your goats?

During the dry period

What are some steps for fecal management?

- Avoid overgrazing and overstocking of pasture (or w/e area they are in)
- Feeding from elevated feed bunks
- Frequent fecal removal from confined areas - esp kid housing

True or false: you can breed for a more parasite resistant animal

True

Why is it super duper important to be sure your drug w/d for milk are accurate for dairy goats?

Many goat dairy farmers serve their milk only to friends and family and the milk may never be tested.

True or false: if there is a drug w/d for dairy cattle but not dairy goats listed, you can just scale it.

FALSE! Either: review the literature or contact FARAD!