Chapter 12 review

Perms that are self-heated and self-timed:

Exothermic

To reform (rebond) the hair and lower the pH in a perm procedure, use a _________

Neutralizer

The main ingredient in acid perms:

Glycerol monothioglycolate

The main ingredient in alkaline waves:

Ammonium thioglycolate

You would put the guest under the dryer with a plastic cap if using this type of perm:

Endothermic

What is the term for the overlap method of wrapping hair around a perm rod?

Croquignole

The base is the area between two:

Partings

What will happen if you don't towel blot after rinsing out the perm solution?

Dilutes the neutralizer resulting in incomplete Rebonding.

If the base is wider than a perm rod, it will cause:

an uneven curl pattern

What base size will create the strongest curl?

1 times the diameter of the tool

Where should the tool be positioned in relation to the base to achieve maximum volume?

On base

Where should the tool be positioned in relation to the base to achieve minimum volume?

Off base

Name the four basic tool positions:

On base, half off base, under directed, and off base

What do most acid waves use along with tension and waving lotion to process the hair?

Heat

What bonds must be broken to change hair from straight to curly?

Disulfide bonds

In which layer of the hair will you find disulfide bonds?

Cortex

When checking to see if the hair is processed correctly, what are you looking for in a test curl?

An s-shaped curl reflecting the size of the rod

Another term for neutralizing:

Rebonding

What reduces the swelling of the hair shaft and hardens the bonds into their new shape around that rod?

Neutralizer

Hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate or sodium bromate are commonly used in:

Neutralizers

What is the pH of neutralizer?

2.5 to 7

What is the pH of alkaline waves?

8.0 to 9.5

What is the pH of acid waves?

6.9 to 7.2

Why should alkaline waves be wrapped without tension?

It causes the hair to swell and tension will cause damage

What creates the necessary tension in alkaline waves?

The swelling of the hair

Why do alkaline waves process faster than all other waves?

It has a higher pH

What can happen if you leave neutralizer on longer than recommended?

Damages the hair

Name the key factors that must be taken into consideration when doing a chemical texturizing service?

Porosity, elasticity, density, and texture

What can be found in some hair color products that would keep the guest from being able to get a perm?

Metallic salts

The physical phase of a relaxer service includes smoothing the hair, rinsing, conditioning, and what?

Applying a neutralizing shampoo

The most common ingredient found in relaxers that completely straighten the hair:

Sodium hydroxide

What is the pH of sodium hydroxide relaxers?

11.5 to 14

Another name for neutralizing shampoo:

Stabilizer

Never perform a sodium hydroxide relaxer service if the guest that has been:

Lightened or permanently colored

When does the chemical action of a relaxer begin?

When the straightening product is applied to the hair

Another name for comb test?

Relaxation test

Curl diffusion, also called chemical blowout is a technique used to do what?

Reduce curl in overly curly hair by 50%

How many times larger than the natural curl should the diameter of the rod be when doing a curl reforming procedure?

Two times larger than the diameter of the natural curl pattern

In curl reforming services "booster" refers to what?

Waving lotion

The main ingredient found in a boosterL

Ammonium thioglycolate

The job of the waving lotion is to:

Break disulfide bonds

Name 3 major classifications of chemical texturizing:

Perming, hair relaxing, and curl reforming

The chemical process of making straight hair curly:

Perming

The Croquignole method was invented in what year?

1926

Name the 2 major phases involved in permanent waving:

Physical and chemical phase

Thioglycolic acid and ammonia are the 2 main ingredients in what kind of perms?

Alkaline

Which phase in perm waving includes applying the perm solution?

Chemical phase

To achieve curl,the hair should wrap around the rod at least how many times?

2 1/2

Name the 2 basic methods of wrapping hair around a tool:

Spiral and croquignole

Which technique uses on end paper folded in half?

Bookend

Which rods produce curls that are uniform in size:

Straight rods

What is used to keep the hair smoothly wrapped around the perm tool and control the ends of the hair?

End papers

End papers will prevent what?

Fish hooks

The most common end paper technique:

Double-flat wrap

What end paper technique uses several end papers along the strand?

Cushion

The most common base control for perming

Half off base or 90 degrees

What elevation would the hair have to be held at for the tool to land on base?

High 45 or 135 degrees

What elevation for 1/2 on base?

90 degrees

What elevation for off base?

45 degrees

What elevation for under directed base?

90 degrees

What is the base size for under directed base?

1.5 times the diameter of the rod

What is another name for rectangle perms?

9 block pattern

Which perm wave should not be used on damaged hair?

Alkaline waves (cold waves)

Which perm wave causes minimal swelling and must be wrapped with firm, even tension?

Acid waves

What is the hairs ability to stretch and return to its original shape called?

Elasticity

What is the ability of the hair to absorb moisture called?

Porosity

Hair that is not porous is referred to as what?

Resistant

What is the number of hairs per square inch called?

Density

What is applied to protect the skin prior to a perm service?

Barrier cream

What determines the size and shape of the curl?

The size of the perm rod

Madam CJ Walker was the first to invent the method of temporarily straightening the hair with what?

Hair pressing (pressing combs)

What shape is the follicle for curly hair?

Elliptical

The "pull test" is a method to check for?

Elasticity

Relaxers are applied to the mid-shaft because the body heat from the scalp will cause what to happen?

Spread to the scalp

What is used to smooth the sections of the hair during the processing of a relaxer?

The back of the tail comb

When doing a relaxer retouch, how do you protect the previously relaxed hair?

Conditioning filler

Which chemical service changes overly curly hair to wavy hair?

Curl reforming

Alkaline waves are also called what?

Cold waves