Sodium

Normal sodium range

135 to 145 mEq/L

Sodium- ICF or ECF?

ECF

HypoNatremia causes what?

Delay in depolarization of membranes

HypoNatremia subjective data

Dizziness, HA, Confusion, Lethargy, Abdominal Cramps, Nausea

HypoNatremia objective Data

Hypothermia, tachycardia, hypotension or hypertension, muscle weakness, seizures, hyperactive bowel sounds

Hyponatremia diagnostics

Serum osmolarity <270 mOsm/L

Hyponatremia treatment

Fluid restrictions possibly, loop diuretics and ACE inhibitors, hypertonic fluids, intake high sodium foods

Hypernatremia risk factors

Decreased water intake, excessive sodium intake, sodium retention, fluid losses

Hypernatremia subjective data

Dizziness, irritability, weakness, thirst

Hypernatremia objective data

Hyperthermia, tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, decreased DTRS, seizures, coma, dry mucous membranes, hyperactive bowel sounds, oliguria

Hypernatremia Diagnostic

Serum osmolarity >300

Hypernatremia treatment

Administer hypotonic or isotonic fluids, encourage water intake, administer loop diuretics

Hypernatremia nursing care

Ensure lab values return to normal incrementally instead of quickly