Instruction II

purpose of needs assessment

-Is there a need for instruction, or can the problem be solved by some other intervention?
- What instruction should be developed to bridge the gap between the current state and the desired state?

What are three types of data that should be collected during a learner analysis?

motivation, goals, scoring methods

steps of learning analysis

1. Instructional Setting and Content Area Context,
2. Instructional Problem
3. Goal of Instruction
4. Requisite Entry-Level Knowledge and Skills
5. Prior Knowledge and Skills
6. Learner Group Unique Characteristics,
7. demo,
8. learner attitudes,
9. Accom

bias

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task analysis

The process of breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units

Deductive learning

learning that proceeds from the general to the specific

backwards design

lesson plan making when starting with the end in mind

Keller's motivational model

Attention - Getting and Holding Learners's Interests and Attention
Relevance - The learning has to show a kind of usefulness. The learner should reach personal goals.
Confidence - The user has to espect success and should have the possibility to controll

behaviorism

Theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are described and explained in terms of stimulus-response relationships, and motivation is often the result of deficit-based drives. Adherents to this perspective are called behaviorists.

constructivism

A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people construct their own understanding of the world they live in through reflection on experiences

cognitivism

A theory of learning. The idea is that learning is a conscious, rational process. People learn by making models, maps and frameworks in their mind. ~ is the opposite of behaviorism.

objectivism

The world is real and knowable through direct observation - all can see the same reality

constructivism

A philosophy of learning based on the premise that people construct their own understanding of the world they live in through reflection on experiences

Gagne's nine events of instruction

1. Gain attention:
e.g. present a good problem, a new situation, use a multimedia advertisement, ask questions.
This helps to ground the lesson, and to motivate
Describe the goal:
e.g. state what students will be able to accomplish and how they will be ab

scope

how much is a reasonable amount of time?

Before beginning to write a performance objective, reflect on the following:

-needs analysis to learn more about the problem and how to bridge the gap between the current state and the desired state
- a goal of instruction, based on the needs analysis, that describes the ultimate performance of the target learner population and is

What is the difference between entry level skills and prior knowledge?

Entry level skills are those that must be mastered by the learners before beginning your instructional.
Prior knowledge is any previous knowledge about the topic of your instruction.

What is the difference between an entry skills test and a pretest?

An entry skills test measures the learners' knowledge/skills in the area that you identified as an entry level skill.
Using the example from the previous question, an entry skills test would be a multiplication test.
A pretest measures the learners' profi

Generative topics

Generative topics are significant topics, issues, concepts or 'big ideas' which provide depth and rigour, multiple connections and different perspectives required to support students' development of powerful understandings.

Providing opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge in a real setting in order to help the
learner feel as though a skill/concept is useful or beneficial is which component of Keller's ARCS Model?

Satisfaction

criterion-based assessment

shows what the student knows and can do, and are set standards of where students should be, developmentally speaking (SOLs)

Facilitating a student's direction of thought (e.g., hints) to help the learner stay on track toward
knowledge acquisition is which of Gagn´┐Ż's Nine Events of Instruction?

elicit performance

Why do we write goal statements?

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why needs analysis

to determine if there is a problem, and the cause of it

What is the value of conducting a Learner Analysis?

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8. Which type of assessment measures entry-level skills?

entry skills test (learner analysis)

What are the parts of Mager's three-part performance objectives?

Condition. Performance. Criteria.