Evidence-Based Practice-2

A nurse researcher interviews parents of children who have diabetes and asks them to describe how they deal with their child's illness. The analysis of the interviews yields common themes and stories describing the parents' coping strategies. This is an e

B. Qualitative
The data in this study were collected during interviews; information from the interviews was used to describe common themes and experiences of the parents. These are characteristics of qualitative research.

A nurse who works in a newborn nursery asks, "I wonder if the moms who breastfeed their babies would be able to breastfeed more successfully if we played peaceful music while they were breastfeeding." In this example of a PICOT question, the I is:
A. Brea

C. Peaceful music.
The Intervention in this PICOT question is playing peaceful music.

A nurse researcher conducts a study that randomly assigns 100 patients who smoke and attend a wellness clinic into two groups. One group receives the standard smoking cessation handouts; the other group takes part in a new educational program that include

D. Randomized controlled trial
This is a randomized controlled trial because patients are randomly assigned into the control or treatment group.

A group of nurses have implemented an evidence-based practice (EBP) change and have evaluated the effectiveness of the change. Their next step is to:
A. Conduct a literature review.
B. Share the findings with others.
C. Conduct a statistical analysis
D. C

B. Share the findings with others.
After completing an EBP project and evaluating its effectiveness, it is important to communicate the results with others.

When recruiting subjects to participate in a study about the effects of an exercise program on balance, the researcher provides full and complete information about the purpose of the study and gives the subjects the choice to participate or not participat

D. Informed consent.
The process of informed consent includes providing research subjects full disclosure about the study and provides the subject the opportunity to participate or not to participate in the study.

Nurses on a pediatric nursing unit are discussing ways to improve patient care. One nurse asks a colleague, "I wonder how best to measure pain in a child who has sickle cell disease?" This question is an example of a/an:
A. Hypothesis.
B. PICOT question.

D. Knowledge-focused trigger.
Knowledge-focused triggers are questions about information available on a specific topic.

The nurses on a medical unit have seen an increase in the number of pressure ulcers that develop in their patients. They decide to initiate a quality improvement project using the PDSA model. Which of the following is an example of "Do" from that model?

A. Implement the new skin care protocol on all medicine units.
In the Do step, the nurse selects an intervention and implements it.

A nurse researcher decides to complete a study to evaluate how Florence Nightingale improved patient outcomes in the Crimean War. This is an example of what type of research?
A. Historical.
B. Evaluation.
C. Exploratory
D. Experimental

A. Historical.
Historical studies establish facts concerning past events.

A group of nurses on the research council of a local hospital are measuring nursing-sensitive outcomes. Which of the following is a nursing-sensitive outcome that the nurses need to consider measuring?
A. Incidence of asthma among children of parents who

C. Number of patients who fall and experience subsequent injury on the evening shift.
Nursing-sensitive outcomes are outcomes that are sensitive to nursing care.

A group of staff nurses notice an increased incidence of medication errors on their unit. After further investigation it is determined that the nurses are not consistently identifying the patient correctly. A change is needed quickly. What type of quality

C. Rapid-improvement event
Rapid-improvement events are appropriate to use when a serious problem that affects patient outcomes exists and needs to be resolved quickly.

A nurse is providing care to a patient who is experiencing major abdominal trauma following a car accident. The patient is losing blood quickly and needs a blood transfusion. The nurse finds out that the patient is a Jehovah's Witness and cannot have bloo

D. Considering the patient's preferences and values while providing care.
Providing evidence-based practice requires that you take the patient's values and beliefs into consideration while providing care.

A group of staff educators are reading a research study together at a journal club meeting. While reviewing the study, one of the nurses states that it evaluates if newly graduated nurses progress through orientation more effectively when they participate

B. Purpose statement
The purpose statement includes research questions or hypotheses´┐Żpredictions made about the relationship or difference between study variables (concepts, characteristics, or traits that vary within or among subjects).

A research study is investigating the following research question: What is the effect of the diagnosis of breast cancer on the roles of the family? In this study "the diagnosis of breast cancer" and "family roles" are examples of:
A. Surveys
B. The sample

C. Variables
Variables are concepts, characteristics, or traits that vary within or among subjects.

A nurse researcher is developing a research proposal and is in the process of selecting an instrument to measure anxiety. In which part of the research process is this nurse?
A. Analyzing the data
B. Designing the study
C. Conducting the study
D. Identify

B. Designing the study
During study design the researcher selects instruments to measure variables.

To provide patient care of the highest quality, nurses utilize an evidence-based practice approach because evidence-based practice is:
A. A guide for nurses in making clinical decisions.
B. Based on the latest textbook information.
C. Easily attained at t

A. A guide for nurses in making clinical decisions.
Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a guide for nurses to structure how to make accurate, timely, and appropriate clinical decisions. A textbook relies on the scientific literature, which is often outdated

In caring for patients, it is important for the nurse to realize that evidence-based practice is:
A. The only valid source of knowledge that should be used.
B. Secondary to traditional or standard care knowledge.
C. Dependent on patient values and expecta

C. Dependent on patient values and expectations.
Even when the best evidence available is used, application and outcomes will differ based on patient values, preferences, concerns, and/or expectations. Nurses often care for patients on the basis of tradit

The first step in evidence-based practice is to ask a clinical question. In doing so, the nurse needs to realize that in researching interventions, the question:
A. Is more important than its format.
B. Will lead you to hundreds of articles that must be r

C. May be easier if in PICO format.
The PICO format allows the nurse to ask questions that are intervention focused. Inappropriately formed questions will likely lead to irrelevant sources of information. It is not
beneficial to read hundreds of articles.

In collecting the best evidence, the gold standard for research is:
A. The randomized controlled trial (RCT).
B. The peer-reviewed article.
C. Qualitative research.
D. The opinion of expert committees

A. The randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Individual RCTs are the gold standard for research. A peer-reviewed article means that a panel of experts has reviewed the article; this is not a research method. Qualitative research is valuable in identifying in

The nurse is writing a research article on a patient care topic. The nurse realizes that the section that will get the reader to read the article because of the value of the topic for the reader is the:
A. Abstract.
B. Introduction.
C. Literature review o

B. Introduction.
The introduction contains information about its purpose and the importance of the topic to the audience who reads the article. The abstract is a brief summary of the article. The literature review or background offers a detailed backgroun

The nurse is caring for a patient with chronic low back pain. In providing care for this patient, the nurse wonders whether the guidelines utilized for this type of pain are adequate. The nurse wants to determine the best evidence-based practice regarding

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) includes clinical guidelines and evidence summaries. MEDLINE includes studies in medicine, nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, veterinary medicine, and allied health. EMBASE includes biomedical and

The nurse is developing a PICO question related to whether her patient's blood pressure is more accurate while measuring with the patient's legs crossed versus with the patient's feet flat on the floor. With P being the population of interest, I the inter

B. A true PICO question regardless of placement of elements.
Note that a well-designed PICO question does not have to follow the sequence of P, I, C, and O. The aim is to ask a question that contains as many of the PICO elements as possible.

In reviewing literature for an evidence-based practice study, the nurse realizes that the most reliable level of evidence is the:
A. Systematic review and meta-analysis.
B. Randomized control trial (RCT).
C. Case control study.
D. Control trial without ra

A. Systematic review and meta-analysis.
In a systematic review or meta-analysis, an independent researcher reviews all of the RCTs conducted on the same clinical question and reports whether the evidence is conclusive, or if further study is needed. A sin

Qualitative nursing research is valuable in that it:
A. Excludes all bias.
B. Uses randomization in structure.
C. Determines associations between variables and conditions.
D. Studies phenomena that are difficult to quantify.

D. Studies phenomena that are difficult to quantify.
Qualitative nursing research is the study of phenomena that are difficult to quantify or categorize, such as patients' perceptions of illness. No study can totally exclude bias. However, randomization,

The nurse has used her PICO question to develop an evidence-based change in protocol for a certain nursing procedure. However, to make these changes throughout the entire institution would require more support staff than is available at this time. What is

D. Conduct a pilot study to develop evidence to support the change.
When evidence is not strong enough to apply in practice, or if resources are limited, the next option is to conduct a pilot study to investigate the PICO question. Dropping the idea would

The hospital policy states that when starting an intravenous (IV) catheter, the nurse must first prepare the potential IV site with alcohol and dress it using a gauze dressing. The nurse has done a literature review and believes that evidence-based practi

B. Bring findings to the policy and procedure committee.
As a result of her finding, the nurse should meet with the policy and procedure committee to recommend routine use of transparent dressings. However, until the policy is changed, or the nurse receiv

The nurse is trying to identify common general themes relative to the effectiveness of cardiac
rehabilitation for patients who have had heart attacks and have gone through cardiac rehabilitation programs. The nurse conducts interviews and focus groups. Wh

C. Qualitative research
Qualitative research involves using inductive reasoning to develop generalizations or theories from specific observations or interviews. Evaluation and experimental research are forms of quantitative research. Nonexperimental descr

In conducting a research study, the researcher must guarantee that any information the subject provides will not be reported in any manner that identifies the subject and will not be accessible to people outside the research team. This concept is known as

B. Confidentiality.
Confidentiality guarantees that any information the subject provides will not be reported in any manner that identifies the subject and will not be accessible to people outside the research team. Anonymity occurs when even the research

The researcher is preparing to publish his study findings. In doing so, the researcher is aware of many ways that the study could have been done better, but that he did not have the ability to do. The researcher discloses these limitations in the manuscri

D. Analysis of data
During analysis of data, the researcher interprets the demographics of the study population, as well as results, including limitations. Problem identification involves identifying the area of interest and study variables, reviewing the

When evaluating quality improvement (QI) programs in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP), it is easy to note that:
A. Both are designed to improve performance.
B. When implementing EBP projects, it is important to review QI data.
C. EBP is not at al

B. When implementing EBP projects, it is important to review QI data.
Evidence-based practice and quality improvement go hand in hand. When implementing an EBP project, it is important to review available QI data. Reliable QI data improve the
relevance an

The hospital's quality improvement committee has identified a problem on one of the units. In using the PDSA method to help determine ways to deal with the issue, the committee decides to do a literature review. This is an example of quality improvement:

A. Combined with evidence-based practice.
Quality improvement combined with evidence-based practice is the foundation for excellent patient care and outcomes. Once a committee defines a problem, it applies a formal model for exploring and resolving qualit

The quality improvement committee has been alerted to an increased number of falls in the
hospital. Most of these falls have occurred at night and have involved patients who were trying to crawl over bedrails. A literature review brought out that most fal

D. Communicate to staff the results of this inquiry
Quality improvement combined with evidence-based practice is the foundation for excellent patient care and outcomes. Once a QI committee makes a practice change, it is important to communicate the result

The hospital quality improvement committee has noted that the incidence of needlestick injuries on a particular unit has increased. When faced with issues, the committee applies the PDSA model, a formal model for exploring and resolving quality concerns.

A. Plan.
"Plan" is the first step of the process; it involves a review of available data to understand existing practice conditions or problems to identify the need for change. "Do" involves
selecting an intervention on the basis of the data reviewed and

The quality improvement committee is examining an increase in medication errors on a particular unit. In conducting its analysis, what should be the committee's primary focus?
A. Nurses who administer the medications
B. Pharmacy that prepares the medicati

D. None of the above.
A well-organized QI program focuses on systems that significantly contribute to outcomes, not on individuals. Therefore, the entire process needs to be evaluated to determine effectiveness.

The nurse is preparing to conduct research that will allow precise measurement of a phenomenon. Which of the following methods will provide the nurse with the right kind of data? (Select all that apply.)
A. Experimental research
B. Surveys
C. Evaluation r

A. Experimental research
B. Surveys
C. Evaluation research
Experimental research, surveys, and evaluation research are all forms of quantitative research. Phenomenology and grounded theory are forms of qualitative research.

Before conducting any study with human subjects, the researcher must obtain approval from the agency's human subjects committee or institutional review board (IRB). The IRB ensures that the researcher (Select all that apply.)
A. Obtains informed consent.

A. Obtains informed consent.
B. Minimizes risk to subjects.
C. Ensures confidentiality.
D. Identifies risks and benefits of participation.
Researchers must protect the confidentiality of those who participate in the study, obtain informed consent, minimiz

The nurse is doing a literature review related to a potential problem that has been identified on the nursing unit. The nurse realizes that nursing research is important in that it is designed to (Select all that apply.)
A. Enhance the nurse's chance at p

B. Identify new knowledge.
C. Improve professional practice.
D. Enhance effective use of resources.
Nursing research is a way to identify new knowledge, improve professional education and practice, and use resources effectively. Effective use of resources