Clinical methods Exam 2: Key terms

Therapy Considerations: function:
good use of time

-time used productively according to goals of session
-unproductive time is limited

Therapy Considerations: function:
proper pacing

clinician moves along appropriately based on client's needs.

Therapy Considerations: function:
scope of session

What is being accomplished during the session, goals targeted

Therapy Considerations: function:
sequence

difficulty of skill moves from easy to hard
(concrete to abstract, general to specific, simple to complex)

Therapy Considerations: function:
activities

be aware of the activity's purpose enhancing effect

Therapy Considerations: function:
therapeutic techniques

use evidence based practice methods/ techniques

Therapy Considerations: function:
data collection

balance the data collecting
- important to focus on client, but data is necessary for ongoing assessment

Stimulus

What you use to elicit a response
-may be materials
-prompts/ cues

materials

mediums used during sessions to execute the purpose of a stimulus

therapy considerations: organization of session:
introduction

greeting and reviewing with the client

therapy considerations: organization of session:
body

training and eliciting behaviors

therapy considerations: organization of session:
closing

assignment of homework or recommendations

baseline

frequency of a behavior or level of functioning before treatment

target behavior

operationally defined skill or action that is the behavior to be targeted during therapy

target response

operationally measured exemplar of behavior

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
topographic aspect of response

form of answer

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
topographic aspect of response EXAMPLE

target behavior: regular past tense
-client produces /d/ or /t/ to represent "ed

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
mode of response

medium trough which response will be measured
(linguistically, where/how production will be heard)

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
mode of response EXAMPLE

when reading, in a narrative, in conversation, etc.

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
level of response

complexity of the response

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
level of response EXAMPLE

in a single word, syllable, sentence

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
stimulus and setting

-stimuli/ materials used to elicit response
-mode/ location of response

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
stimulus and setting EXAMPLE

picture game in a clinic room
reading in the classroom
playing during recess

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
accuracy

criterion

target definition: criteria of operational definitions:
accuracy EXAMPLE

-90%
-3 out 5

target selection: 2 broad theories:
normative strategy

-based on developmental norms typical to a group
-states therapy targets should be presented according to the developmental sequence

target selection: 2 broad theories:
client specific approach

states targets should be chosen based on their relevance to the client

target selection: general guidelines:
Functional

-target should be immediately and socially significant
-should make a difference

target selection: general guidelines:
Functional communication skills

- targets should be behaviors that can be reinforced beyond the therapy room

target selection: general guidelines:
Appropriate for client

-target should appropriate in regards to the client's age, culture, needs, and values

Intervention: general purposes:
Affect change in communicative behavior

help some communicate better

Intervention: general purposes:
Eliminate Underlying cause

eliminate/ fix reason causing the disorder or loss

Intervention: general purposes:
teach compensatory strategies

strategies taught in order to compensate for loss of skill
ex. American Indian Sign Language taught to a person who is non-verbal

Intervention: general purposes:
Modify disorder by teaching new behavior

teach behaviors that help regain a skill
ex. use of tongue blade due to loss of tongue tip

Intervention: Functions:
Evoke behaviors

- client does not have behavior and we want to evoke it
- do this by presenting stimulus, giving instruction, demonstrating, modeling, using prompts

Intervention: Functions:
Create new behaviors

-take a behavior they have, and shape it into the behavior you want them to have
-do this by shaping/ successive approximation

Intervention: Functions:
increase existing behaviors

-client has the behavior, but we want to increase the frequency of the behavior
- based on operant/ behavioral conditioning

Intervention: Functions:
Strengthen response

generalize and maintain behavior
-move mastery of behavior beyond the therapy room

Intervention: Functions:
reduce undesirable behavior

communication behaviors or interfering behaviors
that you may need to get rid of

Long term goals

the relatively broad change in communicative behavior to be achieved during a course of therapy

short term goals "behavioral objective

intervention goal that specifies an action a client is to perform, the conditions under which the action will be performed, and how well the action will be performed for the objective to be achieved.

task analysis

break down of an intervention goal into a series of prerequisite skills and the ordered steps that must be followed to achieve it

Goals: 3main components (Bauer):
" do statement

defines who is going to do what
-defines an observable, measurable action

Goals: 3main components (Bauer):
condition

identifies setting and in what context the behavior will occur

Goals: 3main components (Bauer):
criterion

specifies how well targets will be performed

continuum of naturalness

clinician directed -->hybrid--> client centered

intervention: Frameworks:
Clinician Directed

-Least natural
-clinician controlled
-drill
-drill play

intervention: Frameworks:
Client-centered

-most natural
-therapy occurs in an authentic setting
-client controlled
-basis: wait-interpret- respond

intervention: Frameworks:
Hybrid

-clinician controlled than CC, but more natural than CD
-sets up environment for continuous introduction of language

modeling

clinician presents target behavior to client

imitation

client repeats the clinician's model

delayed imitation

client repeats the clinician's model after a phrase has ben presented after the clinician's model

mand modeling

clinician instructs the client to imitate their model

shaping/ successive approximation

a series of small steps to shape a behavior that client has into a behavior that you want them have

self talk

clinicians self narration

parallel talk

clinician's narration of the client's actions

cloze

the set up of a carrier phrase that elicits target behavior

expansion

clinician provides additional grammatical information

extension

clinician provides additional semantic information

recast

clinician repeats an utterance in different formats

focused stimulation

the structuring of the environment to allow for multiple opportunities for target to occur

script therapy

language used in common scenarios is taught through scripts

false assertion

clinician makes a false statement to elicit a copula

forced choice

clinician makes an utterance that elicits a negative

forced alternative

clinician asks a question that forces a selection of choice

feigned misunderstanding

clinician pretends to not understand the client

violation of routines

clinician violates a step in a routine by omitting it or changing it

label

clinician names things

withholding

clinician fails to provide an object or turn

novelty

clinician introduces something new

contingent query

clinician asks a question to ask for clarification

contingent imitation

clinician imitates a non linguistic noise made by client in order to show the importance for communication

prompts

the presentation of an object to elicit a certain behavior

verbal cues

a verbal assistance/ aid offered after the prompt to elicit the correct production of a target behavior

vocal emphasis

a clinician places stress on the target behavior

visual cues

a visual assistance/ aid offered after the prompt to elicit the correct production of a target behavior

gestural cues

a gestural assistance/ aid offered after the prompt to elicit the correct production of a target behavior

tactile cues

a tactile assistance/ aid offered after the prompt to elicit the correct production of a target behavior

fading

the systematic withdraw of a cue

Reinforcement: positive

add a reinforcement to increase behavior

Reinforcement: negative

take away an undesired consequence/event to increase behavior

Reinforcement: positive primary

-not dependent on prior learning
-usually something needed for survival

Reinforcement: positive secondary

-dependent on prior learning
-CHIS

Reinforcement: positive secondary: Condition generalized

use of a token system, usually working towards a bigger prize

Reinforcement: positive secondary: high probability behavior

client does a behavior they do not want to do in order to be able to do something they do want to do

Reinforcement: positive secondary: informative feedback

clinician offers verbal reinforcement by giving specific feedback about their performance

Reinforcement: positive secondary: social

verbal and nonverbal praise

punishment

present something that decreases behavior

schedules of reinforcement: continuos

consequence is presented after every occurrence of desired behavior

schedules of reinforcement: fixed ratio

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schedules of reinforcement: variable ratio

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schedules of reinforcement:fixed interval

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schedules of reinforcement: variable interval

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Reducing undesirable behavior: Direct

response from clinician to directly modify the undesirable behavior by focusing on shaping the UB into desirable behavior

Reducing undesirable behavior: Direct: extinction

the clinician's response does not reinforce the behavior
methods:
-ignoring
-altering environment
-reducing aversiveness

Reducing undesirable behavior: Direct: Stimulus presentation

clinician responds by presenting either
-punishment
-corrective feed back

Reducing undesirable behavior: Direct: Stimulus Withdrawal

clinician responds by removing a stimulus
-timeout (period w/o reinforcement, exclusion)
-response cost (loss of reinforcement)

Reducing undesirable behavior: Indirect

response from clinician to modify the undesirable behavior by focusing on increasing positive behavior, thus indirectly decreasing UB

Reducing undesirable behavior: Indirect: Differential reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior

clinician rewards the action that is incompatible to the undesirable behavior

Reducing undesirable behavior: Indirect:Differential reinforcement of Alternative Behavior

clinician rewards the positive action that is embedded in the UB

Reducing undesirable behavior: Indirect: Differential of Low Rates responding

objective is to lessen the frequency of the behavior

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