Communications (Chapter 7)

Interpersonal Communication

Communication that occurs when a limited number of people, usually two, interact for the purpose of sharing information, accomplishing a specific goal, or maintaining a relationship.


A continuing and meaningful attachment or connection to anther person.

Personal Relationship

Relationships characterized by a high level of emotional convention and commitment.

Professional Relationship

Relationships characterized by the connections with people with whom you associate and work to accomplish a goal or perform a task.

F.I.R.O. Theory

A theory asserting that people interact with others to satisfy three basic interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection.

(Fundamental Interpersonal Needs) Affection need

The need to feel liked by others.

Inclusion need

The need to belong, to be involved, and to be accepted.

Control need

The need to feel influential, competent and confident.


An interaction, often informal, in which a person exchanges speaking and listening roles with another person.

Open-ended Question

Questions that encourage specific and detailed responses.

Close-ended Question

Questions that only require a short and direct response, such as yes or no.

Turn-requesting cues

Verbal and nonverbal messages that signal a desire to speak, such as leaning forward, providing direct eye contact, and lifting your hand as if beginning a gesture.

Turn-yielding cues

Verbal and nonverbal messages that signal that you are completing your comments and are prepared to listen for example, you may slow down your speaking rate.


The feeling or state of knowing someone deeply in physical, psychological, emotional, intellectual, and/or collaborative ways because that person is significant in your life.


Cause (a process or action) to begin.


Trying out new concepts or ways of doing things.


The process of exaggerating facial expressions in an effort to meet other peoples needs or to express strong feelings.


Indicating the mean value or total sum of a measured quantity.


To make an emotional and or meaningful connection with another person.


Recognize or ascertain what makes (someone or something) different.


Restrict something within limits.


Cease to flow or move; become stagnant.


Keep away from or stop oneself from doing (something).


To bring to an end.


Making ourselves 'transparent' to others through our communication. (i.e., when we tell others things about ourselves which help them to see our uniqueness as a human being).

Johari Window

It's a simple and useful tool for understanding and training: self-awareness and personal development. (created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1955.)


Allowing access, passage, or a view through an empty space; not closed or blocked up.


Unable to see, sightless. Lacking perception, awareness, or discernment.


Keep out of sight or concealed.


Not known or familiar.

Social Penetration Theory

A theory that describes the process of relationship bonding in which individuals move rom superficial communication to deeper, more intimate communication.

Defensive Behaviors

Behavior which occurs when an individual perceives threat or anticipates threat in the group.

Supportive Behaviors

Actions that create an encouraging and caring climate in which self disclosure and responsive to feed back benefit both communicators.

psycho-evolutionary Emotion Theory

A theory that explains the development and meaning of basic and mixed emotions.

Emotional Intelligence

The capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions in ourselves and in our relationships.


An intense feeling caused by a perceived threat to a relationship.

Reactive Jealousy

Occurs when a person becomes aware of a real, threatening danger to the relationship, such as learning that a romantic partner has, in fact, been unfaithful.

Suspicious Jealousy

Occurs when a person suspects, but cannot prove, that someone has done something that threatens the future of a relationship.

Emotional Support

Specific communication behaviors enacted by one person with the intent of helping another person cope effectively with emotional distress.

Person-Centered Messages

One of four spatial zones or distance, personal distance is 18 inches to 4 feet and is used with close personal friends.