Urinary System - Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

The functional unit of the urinary system is the:
A. Kidney
B. Nephron
C. Bladder
D. Ureter

B. Nephron

The majority of water that leaves the blood each day by glomerular filtration returns to the blood through reabsorption by the:
A. Glomerulus
B. Proximal tubule
C. Loop of Henle
D. Collecting tubules

B. Proximal tubule

The shape of the kidney could best be described as:
A. Bean-shaped
B. Pear-shaped
C. Pen-shaped
D. Potato-shaped

A. Bean-shaped

The cup-shaped top of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus is the:
A. Renal corpuscle
B. Afferent arteriole
C. Cortex
D. Bowman's capsule

D. Bowman's capsule

Urine leaving the renal papilla is collected in cuplike structures called:
A. Calyces
B. Pyramids
C. The renal capsule
D. Renal veins

A. Calyces

In the kidney, the structure that delivers blood to the glomerulus is the:
A. Bowman's capsule
B. Efferent arteriole
C. Afferent arteriole
D. Peritubular capillaries

C. Afferent arteriole

The kidneys function to:
A. Excrete toxins and nitrogenous wastes.
B. Regulate levels of many mineral ions in the blood.
C. Maintain water balance.
D. All of the above

D. All of the above

A drop in systemic blood pressure would cause the filtration rate to:
A. Increase
B. Decrease
C. Stay the same

B. Decrease

Urine formation involves all of the following processes except:
A. Filtration
B. Catabolism
C. Reabsorption
D. Secretion

B. Catabolism

A scanty amount of urine is:
A. Anuria
B. Oliguria
C. Polyuria
D. Glycosuria

B. Oliguria

There are ___ openings in the urinary bladder.
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four

C. three

The function of the urinary bladder is to:
A. Serve as a reservoir for urine before it leaves the body
B. Serve as a passage of male reproductive fluid
C. Drain urine from the renal pelvis
D. None of the above

A. Serve as a reservoir for urine before it leaves the body

One difference of the male urethra when compared to the urethra in the female is:
A. The male urethra is shorter.
B. The male urethra is part of two different body systems.
C. The male urethra is lined with mucous membrane and the female is not.
D. The ma

B. The male urethra is part of two different body systems.

Urine is transported from the kidney to the urinary bladder through a tube called the:
A. Renal column
B. Renal pelvis
C. Urethra
D. Ureter

D. Ureter

Which term does not refer to the passage of urine from the body or the emptying of the bladder?
A. Micturition
B. Voiding
C. Urination
D. Urinary meatus

D. Urinary meatus

A condition in which a patient voids urine involuntarily is:
A. Incontinence
B. Retention
C. Suppression
D. Emptying reflex

A. Incontinence

When urine backs up into the kidney and causes swelling of the renal pelvis and calyces, the condition is called:
A. Hydronephrosis
B. Renal clic
C. Renal calculi
D. Lithotripsy

A. Hydronephrosis

Which of the following is incorrect regarding chronic renal failure?
A. Stage one may be asymptomatic and may last for years.
B. Stage two is often called renal insufficiency.
C. Stage three is called uremic syndrome.
D. Stage four is characterized by a v

D. Stage four is characterized by a very high BUN value and oliguria.

The mechanism for voiding begins with:
A. The relaxation of the internal sphincter
B. The contraction of the muscles of the bladder
C. The relaxation of the external sphincter
D. Parasympathetic impulse sent to the bladder

C. The relaxation of the external sphincter

The male urethra passes through the:
A. Prostate gland
B. Spermatic cord
C. Bulbourethral glands
D. Ejaculatory duct

A. Prostate gland

The largest volume of water in the body is _______ fluid.
A. intracellular
B. extracellular

A. intracellular

Plasma is an __________ fluid.
A. intracellular
B. extracellular

B. extracellular

______ is a positively charged ion.
A. Na
B. Cl

A. Na

The posterior lobe of the pituitary secretes:
A. ADH
B. Aldosterone

A. ADH

If an individual takes nothing by mouth for days his fluid output will:
A. Eventually become nothing
B. Continue but decrease dramatically

B. Continue but decrease dramatically

NaCl is a compound that is made up of:
A. Electrolytes
B. Nonelectrolytes

A. Electrolytes

Loss of skin elasticity is a sign of:
A. Dehydration
B. Overhydration

A. Dehydration

The fluid output that changes the most is from the:
A. Intestines
B. Kidneys

B. Kidneys

The percentage of body weight represented by water is greater in:
A. An adult male
B. A newborn infant

B. A newborn infant

When a net transfer of water occurs between the blood and interstitial fluid, it is known as a:
A. Fluid shift
B. Turgor

A. Fluid shift